Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi

Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi
Chancellor and Plenipotentiary
Indira Gandhi Technological and Medical Sciences University
In office
2006 – till now
Born March 13, 1950 (1950-13-03)
Bihar, India
Occupation Education, Institution Builder
Religion Hinduism
Website http://www.prtrivedi.com
From Eulogical Gallery

From The Eulogical Gallery

Discussion with Policymakers
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the Prime Minister Dr. Man Mohan Singh
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then Prime Minister Shri Rajiv Gandhi
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with UPA Chairperson Smt. Sonia Gandhi
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then President of India Shri K R Narayanan
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then Environment Minister of India Shri Rajesh Pilot
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then Prime Minister Shri
P V Narasimha Rao
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then Prime Minister of India Shri H D Devegowda
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then President of India Shri S D Sharma
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then Prime Minister of India Shri I K Gujaral
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the then Deupty Prime Minister Shri L K Advani
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the Chief Minister of Delhi Smt. Sheila Dikshit
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with the Speaker of Delhi Legislative Assembly
Dr. Yoganand Shastri
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi and  then UN Secretary General Mr. Boutros Boutros Ghali
Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi with Mohamed T El-Ashry, the then Chairman and CEO of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)
The Managing Director of World Bank His Excellency Caio Koch-Weser and Dr. P R Trivedi discussing global issues.
The then Environment Minister of India Shri Kamal Nath and Dr. P R Trivedi discussing greening issues..
The then C M of Delhi, Sri Sahib Singh and Dr. P R Trivedi discussing cleaning and greening of Delhi.
Prof. Dr. P R Trivedi, congratulating the then Union Minister for HRD Dr. Murli Manohar Joshi on the achievements of his Ministry.
Dr. G Ram Reddy, the then Chairman of UGC inaugurating the two years PGP during the first anniversary of the Earth Summit in 1993.
The then Union Minister of Environment , Sri Suresh Prabhu realising the Encyclopaedia of Ecology and Environment published by IIEE on 18 December 1998 during 7th World Environment Congress.
Encyclopaedia of Environmental Sciences published by IIEE being released by Sri Kamal Nath, the then Minister of Environment in 1991.
The 10th Annual Function of IIEE and First All India Environment Congress was inaugurated by Sri Yashwant Sinha, the then Finance Minister in December 1990.
Paryavaran Vishwakosh being received by Prof. Saifuddin Soz, the then Union Minister of Environment from Prof. Dr. P R Trivedi.
The Chief Minister of Delhi Smt. Sheila Dikshit receiving Environment
Encyclopaedia from Prof. Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi, Chairman, IIEE.
The then Director of United Nations Information Centre, Mr. Feodor Starcevic presenting National Environment Service Award 1996 instituted by IIEE and IAEWP to Mr. Anil Agarwal, Director, CSE and SEC, New Delhi.
The then Environment Minister of Tunisia Hon’ble Mlika Mohammed El Mehdi receving IIEE Award from Dr. P R Trivedi.
His Excellency Gus Speth, The then UNDP Administrator and Dr. P R Trivedi discussing global environmental issues.

Priya Ranjan Trivedi (Hindi: ) (born March 13, 1950),  is the only person of his type having excelled in the new and emerging area of neology and neocracy for his passion for evolving new doctrines for solving different problems of the world in general and of India in particular. He has advocated through his appropriate solutions and technologies for tackling issues like peacelessness, poverty, pollution, population explosion, unemployment, faulty educational system, insurgency, greed, violence and terrorism.

Before entering into the profession of teaching, training and research he successfully completed his Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral Degrees in the areas of Engineering, Management and Human Rights respectively. Besides teaching the need based subjects and researching on vocational and job oriented areas like ecology and environment, disaster management, sustainable development, total quality management, geoinformatics, bioinformatics, environmental communication, intellectual property rights, human rights, peace studies, conflict resolution, ecological tourism, geriatric care and educational planning, he has also brought out world level and multi volume Encyclopaedias on these subjects which have been used and referred by several governments, ministries and libraries..


Priya Ranjan Trivedi, after completing his Bachelor of Engineering Degree from Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in the Session 1968-1973 decided to be an institution builder after researching on the art and science of institution building and to know as to how do institutions get born, indisposed, stagnated, sick, murdered and as to how to prescribe the methodologies for reviving them. He then felt the need for completing his Master's Degree in Business Administration (MBA) as a knew that management component is desirable in all walks of life. After specialising in the areas of international business at the MBA level and researching on rural as well as urban entrepreneurship by visiting different States and Union Territories, he designed a masterplan paradigm for the establishment of different institutions all over the country for having a competent cadre of young professionals equipped with managerial competence.

His Humbleness Dr. P R Trivedi with the Hon’ble President of India H.E. Shri Pranab Mukherjee

It was in the year 1977-1978 when he started establishing new institutions in the areas of management, administration, computer sciences, hotel management, catering technology and applied nutrition in association with his class friend Dr. Uttam Kumar Singh who had similar brilliant ideas in his mind for giving a new dimensions for solving the problems of the young boys and girls from different parts of the country.

Between 1973 and 2010, Priya Ranjan Trivedi studied many subjects and acquired many qualifications including MBA, Ph.D., D.Sc., LL.D., D.Lit. (both earned as well as honoris causa) from different Central and State Universities in India and other Universities from foreign countries.

As he had keen interest in areas like engineering, management, tourism, environment, disaster management, peace studies, human rights, sustainable development, remote sensing and interfaith studies, he has organised more than 500 national as well as international congresses, conventions, conferences, symposia, workshops and summits in India and other countries under his dynamic leadership. Several Presidents, Prime Ministers, Vice Presidents, Union Ministers, Governors and other Leaders have attended these programmes and have praised the ideas and the contributions of Priya Ranjan Trivedi calling him a visionary leader, scientist, institution builder, philosopher and thinker.

Childhood and Education

Priya Ranjan Trivedi was born to Rajendra Trivedi and Savitri Devi on 13 March 1950 in Muzaffarpur District. He lost his father when he was vary young studying in a village school. He was raised by his mother, his uncle and his elder brother. He was hardworking student and was always a topper in all the school examinations. He studied by candlelight and with the help of lantern as his village Madhopur did not have electricity till he studied there. It was only during the year 1968-69 when his village was energised through proper electric connection but by that time he had left for Ranchi to study engineering and technology there.

Early Career

Priya Ranjan Trivedi spent first 10 years of his professional career at Patna for establishing the much needed institutions in the State of Bihar. As the Director of the Indian Institute of Business Management (1978), Dr. Zakir Husain Institute for Non Formal and Continuing Education (1980), Institute of Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition (1980), Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment (1981), National Centre for Developmental Communication (1982), National Institute of Computer Education (1983), he helped almost all the State Governments in India by way of enabling them to nominate students from their respective States and Union Territories for admission to the graduate and post graduate level programmes conducted under his direct control. Students who successfully completed their professional courses from these institutions are at the helm of affairs in different public as well as private sector organisations in India and in other countries. Based on the invitation and motivation from the then President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Union Ministers of India, Bureaucrats and Policy Makers from New Delhi, he decided to settle down at New Delhi for optimising the available resources and for providing guidance and support to different States and Union Territories of India and the rest of the world in the area of institution building, planning and development under the aegis of the World Institution Building Programme (WIBP), an international charity.

National and International Activities

World Institution Building Programme
World Spiritual Parliament
World Institute of Spirituality
World Initiative for Publishing Encyclopaedias
The Global Open University Press
Indian Institute of Business Management
Commonwealth of Distance Education
Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment
Dr. Zakir Husain Institute for Non Formal and Continuing Education
Indian Institute of Disaster Management
National Centre for Developmental Communication
Indian Institute of Sustainable Development
National Institute of Computer Education
Quality Institute of India
Indian Institute of Human Rights
International Institute of Management
Indian Institute of Applied Psychology
Computers (India) Limited
Indian Institute of Health
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan National Academy of Educational Planning and Administration
Commonwealth of Virtual Education and Research
Anand Shankar Madhavan Foundation
Vishwa Hindi Vidyapeeth
Publications Assistance for Generating Employment

Awards and Appreciation

He has received the following national as well as international awards :
Fountain of Universal Peace Award of United States of America's IAEWP - Affiliated to ECOSOC of the United Nations signed by Dr. Joachim Schuster, Secretary General

World Peace Academy's Mahatma Gandhi International Award from Alabama, USA signed by the President Dr. Charles Mercieca

Academie Europeenne Des Arts, Paris Special Diplome "Ad Honores" signed by the President M. Mourice GIBERT

World Distance Learning Virtual University Administration Award from Comision De Educacion A Distancia, Madrid signed by the President, Dr. Alfonso Roldan More

Spanish Environmental Health Award of FESAMA, The Spanish Association Professionals in Occupational Health and Environment signed by the President Dr. F. Dessart

International Environmental Law Academician Award of Institut Des Affaires Internationales, Paris

Conseil Academique Award of Universite Libre Des Sciences De L'homme De Paris

UN News Award signed by the Editor-in-Chief, Dr. Lee Jon Young

Best Environmentalist Award of the International Scientific Academy of Life Universe and Nature, Toulouse, France

Alliance Universelle Pour La Paix Par La Connaissance (AUPAC)

Global Award on Peace, Mercy and Tolerance Cosponsored by Association Internationale des Educateurs pour la Paix Mondiale (AIEPM), Brussels.


Command on Languages

Priya Ranjan Trivedi has an equal command over Hindi as well as English language. That is how he has authored books in both these langauges. He speaks fluently in the following languages :

Hindi, English, Bajjika, Bengali, Oriya, Nepali, Punjabi, Tamil, Gujarati, Assammese, Nagamese, Bhojpuri, Maithili, Angika, Magahi, Haryanvi and Rajasthani.

Alma Mater

Although Priya Ranjan Trivedi has acquired expert knowledge of different subjects relating to engineering, technology, management, administration, governance, education, ecology, environment, disaster management, sustainable development, peace studies, human rights, intellectual property rights, bioinformatics, geoinformatics, spirituality, geriatric care, habitat and population studies, environmental communication, pollution control etc. by ungergoing formal and non formal education from different institutions in different countries, he has spent full time for studying Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral level programmes at Ranchi University, Bihar University, and Jamia Millia Islamia.

Future Programmes

Priya Ranjan Trivedi has completed 60 years of age on 13 March 2010. He is keen in associating himself with the Government of India for strengthening the cause of nation building by contributing through his neological as well as neocratic approach to governance through effective planning and administration. He also wishes to assist the Central and the State Governments in the following areas:

Development and Welfare of Young People
Geriatric Care and Gerontology for the Older People
Women's Education, Training and Empowerment
Health and Population Education
Educational Reforms for Solving Societal Problems
Habitat, Housing and Shelter for All
Transport Management and Technologies
Information Technology for Rural / Urban Development
Work (including Employment) for All
Social Citizenship and Welfare for Common Mass
Industrial Relations and Human Resource Development
Strengthening Rural Communities for Productivity
Drug Addiction and Drug Abuse
Environment, Ecology and Pollution Control
Coastal Zone Development and Management
Water Crises, Pollution Control and Management
Energy Sources, Management and Development
Waste Minimisation, Management and Utilisation
Agricultural Sustainability and Development
Industrial Programmes, Policies and Management
Population Stabilisation, Control and Management
Constitutional Reforms for India's Development
Local Self Government for Grassroot Development
Community Participation for Total Development
Economic Understanding for Optimising Growth
Tax Education, Planning and Development
Finance and Debt Management
Global Trading for Global Help
Human Rights and Duties Education and Promotion
Environmental Sustainability and Growth
The International Debt Crisis
Peace and Security in South Asia

Priya Ranjan Trivedi has his expert views on all these specialised areas and he wishes to share these unique ideas with one and all. He has invited the Central and the State Governments, Public and Private Sector Organisations, Universities, Colleges, Schools and Institutions for implementing these ideas for having a cleaner as well as greener world in general and greener India in particular.


Priya Ranjan Trivedi may be contacted on the following address :

Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi
A 15, Paryavaran Complex
South of Saket, Maidangarhi Marg
New Delhi - 110030




External links

The AfroAsian Higher Education Agency for Development (AHEAD) is an international organisation established with the leading role of Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi.

The World Institution Building Programme (WIBP) wishes to collaborate with the Federal and the State Governments of the North and the South American Countries for promoting employment centric education.

The Indian Institute of Sustainable Development (IISD) is the only organisation of its type under the patronage of Dr. P R Trivedi dealing with training, research, consultancy, publications and conference organisation in the area of sustainability.

The Women's Initiative for Development Education (WIDE) is the only organisation of women patronised by Dr. P R Trivedi enganged in development education for enabling the young minds to throw themselves into a new environment with full of zeal and enthusiasm so that India could safely manage its affairs in the third millennium.

The Women India Network for Development (WIND) is the only grassroot level women's organisation duly patronised by Dr. P R Trivedi as he believes in women's equality.

The Indian Institute of Bioinformatics (IIB) is a national level research and development organisation established with the technical guidance of Dr. P R Trivedi. The multi-volume Encyclopaedia of Bioinformatics brought out under his dynamic leadership has been the main source of research information on bioinformatiacs.

The Confederaiton of Indian Universities (CIU) was established at the behest of the then Member of Planning Commission Dr. K. Venkatasubramanian with Dr. P R Trivedi as the President. This organisation is complementing and supplementing the efforts of different statutory bodies like UGC, AICTE, AIU, NCTE, PCI, DCI, VCI etc.

The Computers (India) Limited was established by Dr. P R Trivedi with active cooperation of Shri S.G. Pitroda, Advisor to the Prime Minister of India for developing the hardware and the software for proper educational planning and administration besides online and internet based e-learning.

Dr. P R Trivedi had announced during the 1995 World Sports Congress at New Delhi in the presence of the Croatian Ambassador to India that he will provide educational support to Croatia for 20 years. That way he is duty bound to help support the cause of education by collaborating with the Croatian Universities and Institutions of Higher Learning.

Dr. P R Trivedi has given an open invitation to all the Commonwealth Countries of the world for the establishment of open / distance / virtual universities with the financial and technical assistance to be provided by his Group including Commonwealth of Open and Distance Education (CODE) and Commonwealth of Virtual Education and Research (COVER).

Dr. P R Trivedi has been organising different congresses, conventions, seminars, workshops and symposia on different topics related to development. Latest information is available on this website.

Different articles, papers and ideas presented by Dr. P R Trivedi in different congresses and conventions worldwide are placed under this website.

The Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment (IIEE) is the only instiuttion of its type in India for training, research and advocacy in the areas of ecology, environment, natural resources conservation, pollution monitoring and control besides environmental impact assessment. Dr. P R Trivedi is the Perpetual Chairperson and Professor Emeritus of IIEE.

The Institution of Environmental Engineers (India) is the only organisation of its type in India dedicated for the cause of developing the appropriate technology of pollution control and for clean as well as cleaning up environmental technologies under the dynamic leadership of Dr. P R Trivedi.

The International Institute of Ecology and Environment (IIEE) is a global organisation for researching on international environmental issues including global climate change, sea level rise, ozone layer depletion, coastal zone management etc.

Dr. P R Trivedi is the Advisor Extraordinary as well as Plenipotentiary of this international organisation.

The World Institute of Distance Education (WIDE) is an international organisation engaged in research and innovation in distance education for optimising the respective budgets of different universities and educational institutions offering distance education programmes. Dr. P R Trivedi is one the Board of Patrons of WIDE.

The World Association of Distance Education (WADE) is a global association for uniting the functionaries working in distance education institutions all over the world.

The Employment Information (EI) is a fortnightly e-journal for generating employment and for dissemination of job oriented knowledge including self-employment as well as entrepreneurial leadership and managerial competence.

The World Initiative for Publishing Encyclopaedias (WIPE) has brought out many encyclopaedias on different vocational, scientific and related subjects. Dr. P R Trivedi is the Patron of WIPE.

Dr. P R Trivedi constantly keeps on informing the policy makers including the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Union Ministers, Governors, Chief Ministers, MPs, Vice Chancellors and others regarding the appropriate and useful technologies developed under his leadership. The replies from these policymakers are hosted on this website for public information.

Important decisions taken by the Central and the State Governments are perused and evaluated by Dr. P R Trivedi and subsequently these notifications and legislations are hosted on this website.

Dr. P R Trivedi takes the help of other educational planners and administrators for designing new courses in the emerging fields. Such courses are kept on this website for receiving comments and for helping the prospective candidates to get admitted in these courses.

The Indian Institute of Health has been established with a view to achieving "Health for All" by 2020. This Institution has decided to conduct formal and non-formal academic programmes on a continuing basis for preparing a competent cadre of health professionals equipped with knowledge related to different therapies.

The Internet News Service for India's Social Transformation (INSIST) has been announced by the Intellectuals, Social Scientists, Professionals, Policy Makers and Educators under the leadership of Dr. P R Trivedi with a view to propagating news relevant to education and national development.

The Jamia Hind (JH) is a national organisation for uniting all communities having different religions for reviving the ancient Indian culture and "Bhartiyata".

The National Law Institute of India (NLII) is an Institution known for providing a neological as well as neocratic approach to legal education with a view to enabling persons living below the poverty line to know their rights as well as duties.

The International Institute of Management (IIM) is the only organisation in India dedicated for finding grassroot level solutions through a management approach exclusively for catering to the needs of the poor and the downtrodden.

Dr. P R Trivedi after having the views of all minority communities (Muslims, Christians, Sikkhs, Buddhist, Jains, and Parsis) has launched a website for providing an umbrella as a national agency for minority education and empowerment.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan National Academy of Educational Planning and Administration has been established with a view to researching on new apspects of education like open, distance, virtual, ethical, health, technical, vocational, sports, science and related education besides educational planning and administration.

New subjects not launched by any university in the world has been started by The Global Open University Nagaland. These courses include Bachelor's Degrees in Counselling and Guidance, NGO Management, Women's Studies, Social Work, Environmental Science, Mass Communication, Physical Education, Commerce and Management besides Master's Degrees in Hospitality, Ecotourism, Entrepreneurship, Geriatric Care, Photo Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, Peace Studies, Disarmament, Trafficking Abatement, Ethics, Dalit Studies, Tribal Development, Good Governance, Forensic Psychology, Value Education, Intellectual Property Rights, Anti-Terror Laws, Green Business, Global Warming Reduction, Sustainable Development, Mental Health etc.

Viewing the fact that unemployment is the root cause of peacelessness and pollution of mind, Dr. P R Trivedi has been guiding the youth for becoming job givers rather than job seekers by having training in the area of attitudinal and behavioural change for understanding the art and science of entrepreneurship.

With a view to having a neological as well as a neocractic approach to generating employment, Dr. P R Trivedi has envisaged an action plan for creating new jobs through new techniques of waste management and garbage collection with techniques like vermiculture and vermicomposting for producing organic fertilizers and creating / developing organic farms for producing organic food.

The Association of Organisations on Nature and Environment (A-ONE) is the only national platform of NGOs and related bodies dedicated for mother earth protection, nature and environment.

There are many notifications of the Central and the State Governments besides those of statutory bodies not noticed generally by the students. This website hosts such important news and notifications.

As Distance, Open and Virtual Education (DOVE) has become a need as well as a necessity, continuous research and development on open education is urgently required and that is why Dr. P R Trivedi has collected information on distance and open education for bringing out a Distance Education Encyclopaedia.

Dr. P R Trivedi has decided to help all governments of all countries of the world for establishing / strengthening open and virtual universities. The model rules and regulations for collaboration and assistance to different countries are placed on this website.

The World Spiritual Parliament has been established with
Dr. P R Trivedi as its Speaker for enabling the spiritual leaders to address the Parliament and for recommending to the United Nations for also having a spiritual forum for world peace.

The Indian National Green Party has been active in providing proper training to the leaders and workers of different Political Parties to understand the need for protecting the environment and to keep greening on their main agenda and their manifesto.

The World Institute of Spirituality has been established for providing formal and non formal training in the area of spirituality at the Bachelor's and the Master's levels with a view to preparing a competent cadre of Spiritualists.

The Indian Institute of Applied Psychology has been established under the leadership of Dr. P R Trivedi with the renowned expert Dr. Vimala Veeraraghavan as the Director for researching on different aspects of psychology.

National and International Conferences are organised on drug abuse, counselling, forensic psychology, mental health and related subjects at different locations with a view to destressing human mind.

The Indian Institute of Intellectual Property Rights (IIIPR) has been conducting M.A./M.Sc. in IPR besides bringing out an Encyclopaedia of Intellectual Property Rights.

The Right to Information Act 2005 is an important tool for getting urgent information from the public authorities. Many important information sought have been placed on this website.

There is an urgent need for conducting applied research for bringing productivity in the existing systems like banking, finance, rural and urban development, ecology, environment, communiations, transport, education, science and technology.

A Global Umbrella for Applied Research and Development (GUARD) has been developed for duplicating the efforts of research and development and for optimising such results by enabling the researchers in getting proper qualifications.

The Indian Institute of Security Sciences (IISS) has been established for researching on security science and systems and for preparing a cadre of security personnel.

The Sikkim Manipal University of Health, Medical and Technological Sciences was legislated by the Government of Sikkim in the year 1995. Dr. P R Trivedi has been associated with this University since its inception. He advised the University Authorities for launching distance learning programmes in the year 1998-1999 and accordingly from the Academic Session 2000, Post Graduate level courses on ecology and environment, disaster mitigation, sustainable development, total quality management, ecotourism, geoinformatics, pollution control and media management were launched under an academic collaboration with the Indian Institute of Ecology and Environment, New Delhi.

The Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU) decided to establish “The Educational Standards and Testing Council of India – TESTCOIN” for evaluating the performance of all types of educational institutions including schools, colleges, universities and other institutions.

The web-based online courses under the joint auspices of the Commonwealth of Virtual Eduation and Research (COVER) and The Global Open University, Nagaland are being designed to be launched through this website.

There is an urgent need to redefine the scope of engineering and technological areas. Viewing this in mind, more than 100 Certificate level awareness courses on new and emerging areas of Engineering and Technology have been planned through this important website.

A People's Commission / Authority / Agency on Higher Education and Research is required to be established for advising the Government of India as the Government owned Bodies may need advice from time to time.

Virtual Universities are required to be established in India as well as in other countries. Funds and technology are readily available with the World Institution Building Programme (WIBP) and the Commonwealth of Virtual Education and Research (COVER). Respective Governments may approach Dr. P R Trivedi for support.

Model Acts and Legislations are placed on this website for enabling all Governments of the world for the establishment of open universities or virtual universities.


Special Lectures and Announcements

Dr. P R Trivedi has given a new dimension to his theory of "Peace, Mercy and Tolerance".

Dr. P R Trivedi has advocated for an urgent need for a Neological Approach to Higher and Tertiary Education

Dr. P R Trivedi has stressed the need for Globalisation and Internationationalisation of Education

Dr. P R Trivedi has developed a Masterplan Paradigm for a Confederative Approach to Higher Education

Dr. P R Trivedi has designed the Linkages between Higher Education and Employment Generation

Dr. P. R. Trivedi has stressed the Need for Greening of Employment

world spiritual parliament
Presidential Speech on "Peace, Mercy and Tolerance". Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi Speaker, World Spiritual Parliament

Let us, first of all, try to discuss and diagnose intolerance among members of the society for locating respective critical paths for being merciful and tolerant for bringing peace on earth in the twentyfirst century and the third millennium. Viewing the growing peacelessness and intolerance all over the world, let us also discuss the need for disaster education including disaster preparedness, mitigation and management.

Educating the children and young people with a sense of openness and comprehension towards other people, their diverse culture and histories and their fundamental shared humanity; teaching them the importance of refusing violence and adopting peaceful means for resolving disagreements and conflicts; forging in the next generation feelings of altruism, openness and respect towards others, solidarity and sharing based on a sense of security in one's own identity and a capacity to recognise the many dimensions of being human in different cultural and social context should be the main thrust during the deliberations on peace, mercy and tolerance. Let us discuss these matters in a greater detail :

1. The manifestations of violence, racism, xenophobia, aggressive nationalism and violations of human rights, by religious intolerance, by the upsurge of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and by the growing gap separating wealthy countries from poor countries, phenomena which threaten the consolidation of peace, tolerant behaviour and democracy both nationally and internationally and which are all obstacles to development are matters of deep concern.

2. The educational plans and policies have to contribute to the development of understanding, solidarity and tolerance among individuals and among ethnic, social, cultural and religious groups and sovereign nations. Education should promote knowledge, values, attitudes and skills conducive to respect for human rights and to an active commitment to the defence of such rights and to the building of a culture of peace, tolerance and mercy.

3. We are aware of the great responsibility incumbent not only on parents, but on society as a whole, to work together with all those involved in the educational system, and with non-governmental organisations, so as to achieve full implementation of the objectives of education for peace, human rights and civil liberty and to contribute in this way to sustainable development and to a culture of peace.

4. We understand the need to seek synergies between the formal education system and the various sectors of non-formal education, which are helping to make a reality of education that is in conformity with the aims of "Education for All". We know of the decisive role that also falls to non-formal educational organisations in the process of forming the personalities of young people.

5. Accordingly we should strive resolutely to base education on principles and methods that contribute to the development of the personality of pupils, students and adults who are respectful of their fellow human beings and determined to promote peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance; to take suitable steps to establish in educational institutions an atmosphere contributing to the success of education for international understanding, so that they become ideal places for the exercise of tolerance, respect for the rights, the practice of democracy and learning about the diversity and wealth of cultural identities.

6. Action should be taken to eliminate all direct and indirect discrimination against girls and women in education systems and to take specific measures to ensure that they achieve their full potential.

7. There is an urgent need to give special attention to improving curricula, the content of textbooks, and other educational materials including new technologies, with a view to educating caring and responsible citizens open to other cultures, able to appreciate the value of freedom, respectful of human dignity and differences, and able to prevent conflicts or resolve them by non-violent means.

8. Measures must be adopted to enhance the role and status of educators in formal and non-formal education and to give priority to pre-service and in-service training as well as the retraining of educational personnel, including planners and managers, oriented notably towards professional ethics, civic and moral education, cultural diversity, national codes and internationally recognised standards of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

9. The development of innovative strategies adapted to the new challenges of educating responsible citizens committed to peace, human rights, democracy and sustainable development, and to apply appropriate measures of evaluation and assessment of these strategies should be encouraged.

10. In a period of transition and accelerated change marked by the expression of intolerance, manifestations of racial and ethnic hatred, the upsurge of terrorism in all its forms, discrimination, war, violence and the growing disparities between rich and poor, at international and national levels alike, action strategies must aim both at ensuring fundamental freedoms, peace, human rights, and democracy and at promoting sustainable and equitable economic and social development, all of which have an essential part to play in building a culture of peace. This calls for a transformation of the traditional styles of educational action.

11. The ultimate goal of education for peace, mercy and tolerance is the development in every individual of a sense of universal values and types of behaviour on which a culture of peace is predicated. It is possible to identify even in different socio-cultural context values that are likely to be universally recognised.

12. Education must develop the ability to value freedom and the skills to meet its challenges. This means preparing citizens to cope with difficult and uncertain situations and fitting them for personal autonomy and responsibility. Awareness of personal responsibility must be linked to recognition of the value of civic commitment, of joining together with others to solve problems and to work for a just, peaceful and democratic community.

13. Education must develop the ability to recognise and accept the values which exist in the diversity of individuals, genders, peoples and cultures and develop the ability to communicate, share and co-operate with others. The citizens of a pluralist society and multicultural world should be able to accept that their interpretation of situations and problems is rooted in their personal lives, in the history of their society and in their cultural traditions; that, consequently, no individual or group holds the only answer to problems; and that for each problem there may be more than one solution. Therefore, people should understand and respect each other and negotiate on an equal footing, with a view to seeking common ground. Thus education must reinforce personal identity and should encourage the convergence of ideas and solutions which strengthen peace, friendship and solidarity between individuals and people.

14. Education must develop the ability of non-violent conflict-resolution. It should therefore promote also the development of inner peace in the minds of learners so that they can establish more firmly the qualities of tolerance, compassion, sharing and caring.

15. Education must cultivate in citizens the ability to make informed choices, basing their judgements and actions not only on the analysis of present situations but also on the vision of a preferred future.

16. Education must teach citizens to respect the cultural heritage, protect the environment, and adopt methods of production and patterns of consumption, which lead to sustainable development. Harmony between individual and collective values and between immediate basic needs and long-term interests is also necessary. Education should cultivate feelings of solidarity and equity at the national and international levels in the perspective of a balanced and long-term development.

17. Strategies relating to education for peace, mercy, tolerance and disaster education must (a) be comprehensive and holistic, which means addressing a very broad range of factors; (b) be applicable to all types, levels and forms of education; (c) involve all educational partners and various agents of socialisation, including NGOs and community organisations; (d) be implemented locally, nationally, regionally and world-wide; (e) entail modes of management and administration, co-ordination and assessment that give greater autonomy to educational establishments so that they can work out specific forms of action and linkage with the local community, encourage the development of innovations and foster active and democratic participation by all those concerned in the life of the establishment; (f) be suited to the age and psychology of the target group and take account of the evolution of the learning capacity of each individual; (g) be applied on a continuous and consistent basis. Results and obstacles have to be assessed, in order to ensure that strategies can be continuously adapted to changing circumstances; (h) include proper resources for education as a whole and specially for marginalised and disadvantaged groups.

18. To strengthen the formation of values and abilities such as solidarity, creativity, civic responsibility, the ability to resolve conflicts by non-violent means, and critical acumen, it is necessary to introduce into curricula, at all levels, true education for citizenship which includes an international dimension. Teaching should particularly concern the conditions for the construction of peace; the various forms of conflict, their causes and effects; the ethical, religious and philosophical bases of human rights, their historical sources, the way they have developed and how they have been translated into national and international standards, such as in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the bases of democracy and its various institutional models; the problem of racism and the history of the fight against sexism and all the other forms of discrimination and exclusion. Particular attention should be devoted to culture, the problem of development and the history of every people, as well as to the role of the United Nations and international institutions. There must be education for peace, conflict resolution, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance. It cannot, however, be restricted to specialised subjects and knowledge. The whole of education must transmit this message and the atmosphere of the institution must be in harmony with the application of democratic standards. Likewise, curriculum reform should emphasise knowledge, understanding and respect for the culture of others at the national and global levels and should link the global interdependence of problems to local action. In view of religious and cultural differences, every country may decide which approach to ethical education best suits its cultural context.

19. All people engaged in educational action must have adequate teaching materials and resources at their disposal. In this connection, it is necessary to make the required revisions to textbooks to remove negative stereotypes and distorted views. International co-operation in producing textbooks could be encouraged. Whenever new teaching materials, textbooks and the like are to be produced, they should be designed with due consideration of new situations. The textbooks should offer different perspectives on a given subject and make transparent the national or cultural background against which they are written. Their content should be based on scientific findings. It would be desirable for the documents of United Nations institutions to be widely distributed and used in educational establishments, especially in countries where the production of teaching materials is proving slow owing to economic difficulties. Distance education technologies and all modern communication tools must be placed at the service of education for peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance.

20. It is essential for the development of education for peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance that reading and verbal and written expression programmes should be considerably strengthened. A comprehensive grasp of reading, writing and the spoken word enables citizens to gain access to information, to understand clearly the situation in which they are living, to express their needs, and to take part in activities in the social environment. In the same way, learning foreign languages offers a means of gaining a deeper understanding of other cultures, which can serve as a basis for building better understanding between communities and between nations.

21. Proposals for educational change find their natural place in schools and classrooms. Teaching and learning methods, forms of action and institutional policy lines have to make peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance both a matter of daily practice and something that is learned. With regard to methods, the use of active methods, group work, the discussion of moral issues and personalised teaching should be encouraged. As for institutional policy lines, efficient forms of management and participation must promote the implementation of democratic school management, involving teachers, pupils, parents and the local community as a whole.

22. The reduction of failure must be a priority. Therefore, education should be adapted to the individual student’s potential. The developments of self-esteem, as well as strengthening the will to succeed in learning, are also basic necessities for achieving a higher degree of social integration. Greater autonomy for schools implies greater responsibility on the part of teachers and the community for the results of education. However, the different development levels of education systems should determine the degree of autonomy in order to avoid a possible weakening of educational content.

23. The training of personnel at all levels of the education system: teachers, planners, managers, teacher educators has to include education for peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance. This pre-service and in-service training and retraining should introduce and apply in situ methodologies, observing experiments and evaluating their results. In order to perform their tasks successfully, schools, institutions of teacher education and those in charge of non-formal education programmes should seek the assistance of people with experience in the fields of peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance (politicians, jurists, sociologists and psychologists) and of the NGOs specialised in human rights, environment and disaster education. Similarly, pedagogy and the actual practice of exchanges should form part of the training courses of all educators.

24. Teacher education activities must fit into an overall policy to upgrade the teaching profession. International experts, professional bodies and teachers’ unions should be associated with the preparation and implementation of action strategies because they have an important role to play in promoting a culture of peace among teachers themselves.

25. Specific strategies for the education of vulnerable groups and those recently exposed to conflict or in a situation of open conflict are required as a matter of urgency, giving particular attention to children at risk and to girls and women subjected to sexual abuse and other forms of violence. Possible practical measures could include, for example, the organisation outside the conflict zone of specialised forums and workshops for educators, family members and mass media professionals belonging to the conflicting groups and an intensive training activity for educators in post-conflict co-operation with governments whenever possible.

26. The organisations of education programmes for abandoned children, street children, refugee and displaced children and economically and sexually exploited children are a matter of urgency. It is equally urgent to organise special youth programmes laying emphasis on participation by children and young people in solidarity actions and environmental protection. In addition, efforts should be made to address the special needs of people with learning difficulties by providing them with relevant education in a non- exclusionary and integrated educational setting.

27. Furthermore, in order to create understanding between different groups in society, there must be respect for the educational rights of persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, as well as indigenous people, and this must also have implications in the curricula and methods and in the way education is organised.

28. New problems require new solutions. It is essential to work out strategies for making better use of research findings, to develop new teaching methods and approaches and to improve co-ordination in choosing research themes between research institutes in the social sciences and education in order to address in a more relevant and effective way the complex nature of education for peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance. The effectiveness of educational management should be enhanced by research on decision-making by all those involved in the educational process (government, teachers, parents, etc.). Research should also be focused on finding new ways of changing public attitudes towards human rights, in particular towards women, and environmental issues. The impact of educational programmes may be better assessed by developing a system of indicators of results, setting up data banks on innovative experiments, and strengthening systems for disseminating and sharing information and research findings, nationally and internationally.

29. Higher education institutions can contribute in many ways to education for peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance. In this connection, the introduction into the curricula of knowledge, values and skills relating to peace, human rights, justice, the practice of democracy, professional ethics, civic commitment and social responsibility should be envisaged. Educational institutions at this level should also ensure that students appreciate the interdependence of nations in an increasingly global society.

30. The education of citizens cannot be the exclusive responsibility of the education sector. If it is to be able to do its job effectively in this field, the education sector should closely co-operate, in particular, with the family, the media, including traditional channels of communication, the world of voluntary organisations and NGOs.

31. Concerning co-ordination between school and family, measures should be taken to encourage the participation of parents in school activities. Furthermore, education programmes for adults and the community in general in order to strengthen the school’s work are essential.

32. The influence of the media in the socialisation of children and young people is increasingly being acknowledged. It is, therefore, essential to train teachers and prepare students for the critical analysis and use of the media, and to develop their competence to profit from the media by a selective choice of programmes. On the other hand, the media should be urged to promote the values of peace, respect for human rights, democracy and tolerance, in particular by avoiding programmes and other products that incite hatred, violence, cruelty and disrespect for human dignity.

33. Young people who spend a lot of time outside school and who often do not have access to the formal education system, or to vocational training or a job, as well as young people doing their military service, are a very important target group of education programmes for peace, non violence, mercy, compassion and tolerance. While seeking improved access to formal education and vocational training, it is therefore essential for them to be able to receive non-formal education adapted to their needs, which would prepare them to assume their role as citizens in a responsible and effective way. In addition, education for peace, human rights and respect for the law has to be provided for young people in prisons, reformatories or treatment centres.

34. Adult education programmes where NGOs have an important role to play should make everyone aware of the link between local living conditions and world problems. Basic education programmes should attach particular importance to subject matter relating to peace. All culturally suitable media such as folklore, popular theatre, community discussion groups and radio should be used in mass education.

35. The promotion of peace will require regional co-operation, international solidarity and the strengthening of co-operation between international and governmental bodies, non-governmental organisations, the scientific community, business circles, industry and the media. This solidarity and co- operation must help the developing countries to meet their needs for promoting education for peace.

36. In the light of the information provided relating peace, mercy, tolerance and disaster education we must the following resolve :

i) Alarmed by the current rise in acts of intolerance, violence, terrorism, xenophobia, aggressive nationalism, racism, anti-semitism, exclusion, marginalisation and discrimination directed against national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, refugees, migrant workers, immigrants and vulnerable groups within societies, as well as acts of violence and intimidation committed against individuals exercising their freedom of opinion and expression - all of which threaten the consolidation of peace, mercy, tolerance and disaster management efforts both nationally and internationally, and are obstacles to development.

ii) Resolving to take all positive measures necessary to promote peace, mercy and tolerance in our societies, because these are not only the cherished principles, but also a necessity for peace and for the economic and social advancement of all peoples.

iii) Mercy and Tolerance are respect, acceptance and appreciation of the rich diversity of our world’s cultures, our forms of expression and ways of being human. It is fostered by knowledge, openness, communication, and freedom of thought, conscience and belief. Mercy and Tolerance are harmony in difference. These are not only a moral duty, but are also political and legal requirements. Mercy and Tolerance, the virtues that make peace possible, contribute to the replacement of the culture of war by a culture of peace.

iv) Mercy and Tolerance are not concession, condescension or indulgence. Mercy and Tolerance are, above all, active attitudes prompted by recognition of the universal human rights and fundamental freedoms of others. In no circumstance can these be used to justify infringements of these fundamental values. Mercy and Tolerance are to be exercised by individuals, groups and nations.

v) Mercy and Tolerance are the responsibility that upholds human rights, pluralism (including cultural pluralism), democracy and the rule of law. It involves the rejection of dogmatism and absolutism and affirms the standards set out in international human rights instruments.

vi) Consistent with respect for rights, the practice of mercy and tolerance does not mean toleration of social injustice or the abandonment or weakening of one’s convictions. It means that one is free to adhere to one’s own convictions and accepts that others adhere to theirs. It means accepting the fact that human beings, naturally diverse in their appearance, situation, speech, behaviour and values, have the right to live in peace and to be as they are. It also means that one’s views are not to be imposed on others.

vii) Mercy and Tolerance require just and impartial legislation, law enforcement, judicial and administrative processes. It also requires that economic and social opportunities be made available to each person without any discrimination. Exclusion and marginalisation can lead to frustration, hostility and fanaticism.

viii) In order to achieve a more tolerant society, nations should ratify existing international human rights conventions, and draft new legislation where necessary to ensure equality of treatment and of opportunity for all groups and individuals in society.

ix) It is essential for international harmony that individuals, communities and nations accept and respect the multicultural character of the human family. Without mercy and tolerance there can be no peace, and without peace there can be no development.

x) Intolerance may take the form of marginalization of vulnerable groups and their exclusion from social and political participation, as well as violence and discrimination against them. Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice confirms ‘All individuals and groups have the right to be different’.

xi) In the modern world, mercy and tolerance are more essential than ever before. It is an age marked by the globalisation of the economy and by rapidly increasing mobility, communication, integration and inter-dependence, large-scale migrations and displacement of populations, urbanisation and changing social patterns. Since every part of the world is characterised by diversity, escalating intolerance and strife potentially menaces every region. It is not confined to any country, but is a global threat.

xii) Mercy and Tolerance are necessary between individuals and at the family and community levels. Tolerance promotion and the shaping of attitudes of openness, mutual listening and solidarity should take place in schools and universities and through non-formal education, at home and in the workplace. The communication media are in a position to play a constructive role in facilitating free and open dialogue and discussion, disseminating the values of tolerance, and highlighting the dangers of indifference towards the rise in intolerant groups and ideologies.

xiii) Appropriate scientific studies and networking should be undertaken to co-ordinate the international community’s response to this global challenge, including analysis by the social sciences of root causes and effective countermeasures, as well as research and monitoring in support of policy-making and standard-setting action by different countries

xiv) Education is the most effective means of preventing intolerance. The first step in mercy and tolerance education is to teach people what their shared rights and freedoms are, so that they may be respected, and to promote the will to protect those of others.

xv) Education for mercy and tolerance should be considered an urgent imperative; that is why it is necessary to promote systematic and rational mercy and tolerance teaching methods that will address the cultural, social, economic, political and religious sources of intolerance which are the major roots of violence and exclusion. Education policies and programmes should contribute to development of understanding, solidarity and tolerance among individuals as well as among ethnic, social, cultural, religious and linguistic groups and nations.

xvi) Education for mercy and tolerance should aim at countering influences that lead to fear and exclusion of others, and should help young people to develop capacities for independent judgement, critical thinking and ethical reasoning.

xvii) It is time to pledge to really support and implement programmes of social science research and education for mercy, tolerance, compassion, human rights and non-violence. This means devoting special attention to improving teacher training, curricula, the content of textbooks and lessons, and other educational materials including new educational technologies, with a view to educating caring and responsible citizens open to other cultures, able to appreciate the value of freedom, respectful of human dignity and differences, and able to prevent conflicts or resolve them by non-violent means.

xviii) It is essential that we commit ourselves to promoting mercy, tolerance as well as non-violence through programmes and institutions in the fields of education, science, culture and communication.

xix) In order to generate public awareness, emphasise the dangers of intolerance and disastrous actions and react with renewed commitment and action in support of tolerance promotion and education, pledge to design tailor made training programmes of short as well as long duration in the areas of peace, mercy, tolerance, compassion, disaster education and related subjects.

xx) People should commit themselves to promote tolerance and non-violence through programmes and institutions by developing a neological as well as neocratic approach to governance and by designing a masterplan paradigm for peace on earth.

World Society, having emerged from the decades of the cold war, enjoyed for a short time the hopes that the end of this struggle was the beginning of an era in which the destructive consequences of that conflict and the deep divisions imposed by global economic inequities might be addressed. These hopes were sorely tested, however, by the eruption of regional conflicts and the hostilities between people which fragmented nations and drastically changed the political map of the world as it had been for nearly half a century. All over the globe, intergroup tensions, religious hostilities and ethnic conflicts have been erupting. Many long-standing conflicts previously overlooked have come to world attention.

Deep hatreds, some of which had previously healed over through reconciliations that permitted ethnic groups to live together in peace and cooperation have surfaced in social behaviour and political movements, and are voiced in the media and at conferences; communities exploded into warfare. The process of settling the disputes, reconciling the hostilities and reconstructing the societies will be one of the most difficult human society has ever undertaken. It may be one of the greatest challenges ever faced by those who seek to educate for peace. Educators should not shrink from facing the realities of history, nor can they avoid the responsibility to taking up the challenge posed by the reconciliation process to those who plan and carry out the social learning process.

Mercy and Tolerance are but the beginning, the first stage in a longer, deeper process of developing a culture of peace. It is the minimal essential quality of social relations that eschew violence and coercion. Without mercy and tolerance, peace is not possible. With mercy and tolerance, a panoply of positive human and social possibilities can be pursued, including the evolution of a culture of peace and the convivial communities that comprise it.

Religion has been a significant factor in the evolution of cultures, peace and nonviolence providing behavioural and social codes. Sadly, it has also been the basis of divisions, intolerance, war and conflict. As we have seen many man made disasters during last few years, teaching for religious tolerance has become an urgent necessity. We must identify a range of strategies and services to help both the perpetrators of violence and victims.

This will require of religious people repentance and humility : a recognition that we have hurt one another, we have misused religion to seek power over others, we have allowed institutional self-interest to hide the spiritual heritage entrusted to our care. Too easily we have passed fine resolutions, but failed to live by them ourselves. In this gathering it is we ourselves who need to change. This Global Assembly is a celebration and a thanks giving for all who have pioneered this work and enthused us with their dreams; but it is also a time of dedication, when strengthened by each other's encouragement, we shall commit ourselves to be used in the building of the new and spiritual world home, in which all people enjoy a fully human life.

It is hard to assess the impact that religious people can have on political processes, especially as politicians seldom acknowledge those who have influenced them. Modern communications have given added weight to popular opinion. Religious leaders may play an important role in forming public opinion. They can insist on the relevance of spiritual and moral considerations. They have helped to maintain public alarm at the enormous stockpile of nuclear weapons and other means of mass destruction. They have voiced public outrage at the starvation of millions of people, as a result of hunger, war, injustice and an unfair pattern of international trade. They have upheld human dignity and protested against torture and racism. They have underpinned efforts to develop internationally agreed standards of human rights and have helped to monitor their application.

In all religions there is an increase of extremism, which also alienates others from any religious allegiance. Religious differences sometimes enflame political and economic divisions and sometimes religion is exploited by the powerful as an instrument of social control.

It is easy to deplore intolerance – especially in others. It is harder to understand its causes, which may be psychological or related to a group feeling politically, culturally or economically marginalised. Intolerance may be caused by fear or ignorance or it may be based on exclusive claims to truth.

The educational task is still far from complete. Increasingly formal and non-formal training, teaching and research will become more practical with an emphasis on ways of cooperating to face urgent problems and to seek a global ethic or consensus on moral values.

We should be trying to show that people of all religions and races can agree on the importance of peace, mercy, compassion and tolerance. Only together will prejudice and discrimination be removed, violence and injustice ended, poverty relieved and the planet preserved.

In our contemporary world, we are very conscious of the persistence of injustice, war, hunger and environmental damage; and we are conscious too of the many ways in which religions can be use to perpetuate division and misunderstanding. Why not long for a world where men and women of faith strive to know and respect one another's beliefs and ways of life, to work together for the common good of all, to build up a true world community from our diverse communities.

World Peace can be restored at the earliest if we propose the creation of an "Inter-religious Spiritual Forum for Cooperation with United Nations" with a view to having all the important religious leaders of different faiths for discussing and resolving to be compassionate, tolerant, humanitarian and good to others.

Let us remember what we read in Upnishad – "From the unreal, lead me to the Real; From darkness, lead me to the Light; From death, lead me to Immortality".

Globalisation and Internationationalisation of Education  

It has often been taken for granted that universities are international. The universal nature of knowledge, a long tradition of international collegiality and cooperation in research, the comings and goings of faculty and students since antiquity have all served to create this impression. Conscious that this impression only partially reflects the day to day reality of higher education institutions and noting that internationalisation of higher education is today more than ever a worthy goal, there is an urgent need to reaffirm the commitment and to urge all stakeholders to contribute to its realisation.

As we approach the 21st Century, a number of major challenges face women and men as they interact with one another as individuals, groups, and with nature. Globalisation of trade, of production, of services, and of communications has created a highly interconnected world. Yet the tremendous gaps between the rich and the poor continue to widen both within, and between nations. Sustainable development remains an elusive long-term goal, too often sacrificed for short-term gains.

It is imperative that higher education offers solutions to existing problems and innovate to avoid problems in the future. Whether in the economic, political, or social realms, higher education is expected to contribute to raising the overall quality of life. To fulfil its role effectively and maintain excellence, higher education must become far more internationalised; it must integrate an international and intercultural dimension into its teaching, research, and service functions.

Preparing future leaders and citizens for a highly interdependent world, requires a higher education system where internationalisation promotes cultural diversity and fosters intercultural understanding, respect, and tolerance among peoples. Such internationalisation of higher education contributes to building more than economically competitive and politically powerful regional blocks; it represents a commitment to international solidarity, human security and helps to build a climate of global peace.

Technological advances in communications are powerful instruments, which can serve to further inter-nationalisation of higher education and to democratise access to opportunities. However, to the extent that access to new information technologies remains unevenly distributed in the world, the adverse side effects of their widespread use can threaten cultural diversity and widen the gaps in the production, dissemination, and appropriation of knowledge.

Highly educated manpower at the highest levels are essential to increasingly knowledge-based development. Internationalisation and international cooperation can serve to improve higher education by increasing efficiency in teaching and learning as well as in research through shared efforts and joint actions.

The Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU) from the very day of its establishment on 15 April 2004 thinks it proper to define the principle of institutional autonomy as the necessary degree of independence from external interference that a university requires in respect of its internal organisation and governance, the internal distribution of financial resources and the generation of income from non public sources, the recruitment of its staff, the setting of the conditions of study and, finally, the freedom to conduct teaching and research.

The CIU wishes to further define the principle of academic freedom as the freedom for members of the academic community that is, scholars, teachers and students to follow their scholarly activities within a framework determined by that community in respect of ethical rules and international standards, and without outside pressure.

Rights confer obligations. These obligations are as much incumbent on the individuals and on a university of which they are part, as they are upon the State and the Society.

Academic freedom engages the obligation by each individual member of the academic profession to excellence, to innovation, and to advancing the frontiers of knowledge through research and the diffusion of its results through teaching and publications.

Academic freedom also engages the ethical responsibility of the individuals and the academic community in the conduct of research, both in determining the priorities of that research and in taking account of the implications, which its results may have for humanity and nature.

For its part, the University has the obligation to uphold and demonstrate to the society that it stands by its collective obligation to quality and ethics, to fairness and tolerance, to the setting and the upkeep of standards — academic when applied to research and teaching, administrative when applied to due process, to the rendering of accounts to the society, to self-verification, to institutional review and to transparency in the conduct of institutional self-government.

For their part, organising powers and stakeholders, public or private, stand equally under the obligation to prevent arbitrary interference, to provide and to ensure those conditions necessary, in compliance with internationally recognised standards, for the exercise of academic freedom by individual members of the academic profession and for University autonomy to be exercised by the institution.

In particular, the organising powers and stakeholders, public or private, and the interests they represent, should recognise that by its very nature the obligation upon the academic profession to advance knowledge is inseparable from the examination, questioning and testing of accepted ideas and of established wisdom. And that the expression of views, which follow from scientific insight or scholarly investigation may often be contrary to popular conviction or judged as unacceptable and intolerable.

Hence, agencies which exercise responsibility for the advancement of knowledge as to particular interests which provide support for, or stand in a contractual relationship with, the university for the services it may furnish, must recognise that such expressions of scholarly judgement and scientific inquiry shall not place in jeopardy the career or the existence of the individual expressing them nor leave that individual open to pursual for delit d'opinion on account of such views being expressed.

If the free range of inquiry, examination and the advance of knowledge are held to be benefits society derives from the University, the latter must assume the responsibility for the choices and the priorities it sets freely. Society for its part, must recognise its part in providing means appropriate for the achievement of that end.

Resources should be commensurate with expectations — especially those which, like fundamental research, demand a long-term commitment if they are to yield their full benefits.

The obligation to transmit and to advance knowledge is the basic purpose for which academic freedom and university autonomy are required and recognised. Since knowledge is universal, so too is this obligation.

In practice, however, universities fulfil this obligation primarily in respect of the societies in which they are located. And it is these communities, cultural, regional, national and local, which establish with the University the terms by which such responsibilities are to be assumed, who is to assume them and by what means and procedures.

Responsibilities met within the setting of 'national' society, extend beyond the physical boundaries of that society. Since its earliest days, the University has professed intellectual and spiritual engagement to the principles of 'universalism' and to 'internationalism' whilst Academic freedom and university autonomy evolved within the setting of the historic national community.

For universities to serve a world society requires that academic freedom and university autonomy form the bedrock to a new Social Contract - a contract to uphold values common to humanity and to meet the expectations of a world where frontiers are rapidly dissolving.

In the context of international cooperation, the exercise of academic freedom and university autonomy by some should not lead to intellectual hegemony over others. It should, on the contrary, be a means of strengthening the principles of pluralism, tolerance and academic solidarity between institutions of higher learning and between individual scholars and students.

At a time when the ties, obligations and commitments between the society and the university are becoming more complex, more urgent and more direct, it appears desirable to establish a broadly recognised Charter of mutual rights and obligations governing the relationship between the University and society, including adequate monitoring mechanisms for its application.

masterplan paradigm for a confederative approach in universities

1. There is an unprecedented demand for and a great diversification in higher education, as well as an increased awareness of its vital importance for sociocultural and economic development, and for building the future, for which the younger generations will need to be equipped with new skills, knowledge and ideals.

2. Higher education includes ‘all types of studies, teaching, training and research at the post-secondary level, provided by universities or other educational establishments that are approved as institutions of higher education by the competent authorities.

3. Everywhere higher education is faced with great challenges and difficulties related to financing, equity of conditions at access into and during the course of studies, improved staff development, skills-based training, enhancement and preservation of quality in teaching, research and services, relevance of programmes, employability of graduates, post-graduates and doctorates, establishment of efficient co-operation agreements and equitable access to the benefits of international co-operation.

4. At the same time, higher education is being challenged by new opportunities relating to technologies that are improving the ways in which knowledge can be produced, managed, disseminated, accessed and controlled. Equitable access to these technologies should be ensured at all levels of education systems.

5. The initial years of this century and the last 50 years of the twentieth century will go down in the history of higher education as the period of its most spectacular expansion: an over sixfold increase in student enrolments worldwide. But it is also the period which has seen the gap between the industrially developed, the developing countries and in particular the least developed countries with regard to access and resources for higher learning and research, already enormous, becoming even wider. It has also been a period of increased socio-economic stratification and greater difference in educational opportunity within countries, including in some of the most developed and wealthiest nations.

6. Without adequate higher education and research institutions providing a critical mass of skilled and educated people, no country can ensure genuine endogenous and sustainable development and, in particular, developing countries and the least developed countries cannot reduce the gap separating them from the industrially developed ones. Sharing knowledge, international co-operation and new technologies can offer new opportunities to reduce this gap.

7. Higher education has given ample proof of its viability over the centuries and of its ability to change and to induce change and progress in society. Owing to the scope and pace of change, society has become increasingly knowledge-based so that higher learning and research now act as essential components of cultural, socio-economic and environmentally sustainable development of individuals, communities and nations.

8. Higher education itself is confronted, therefore, with formidable challenges and must proceed to the most radical change and renewal it has ever been required to undertake, so that our society, which is currently undergoing a profound crisis of values, can transcend mere economic considerations and incorporate deeper dimensions of morality and spirituality.

9. It is with the aim of providing solutions to these challenges and of setting in motion a process of in-depth reform in higher education worldwide that the Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU) is being established with a view to designing a Masterplan Paradigm for introducing development systems for strengthening the cause of higher education in the third millennium.

CIU's declaration on higher education
We, the University level Institutions in India assembled at New Delhi on 15 April 2004;

10. Recalling the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states in Article 26, paragraph 1, that ‘Everyone has the right to education’ and that ‘higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit’, and endorsing the basic principles of the Convention against Discrimination in Education (1960), which, by Article 4, commits the States Parties to it to ‘make higher education equally accessible to all on the basis of individual capacity’.

11. Convinced that education is a fundamental pillar of human rights, democracy, sustainable development and peace, and shall therefore become accessible to all throughout life and that measures are required to ensure co-ordination and co-operation across and between the various sectors, particularly between general, technical and professional secondary and post-secondary education as well as between universities, colleges and technical institutions.

12. Believing that, in this context, the solution of the problems faced in the twenty-first century will be determined by the vision of the future society and by the role that is assigned to education in general and to higher education in particular.

13. Aware that at the beginning of a new millennium it is the duty of higher education to ensure that the values and ideals of a culture of peace prevail and that the intellectual community should be mobilized to that end.

14. Considering that a substantial change and development of higher education, the enhancement of its quality and relevance, and the solution to the major challenges it faces, require the strong involvement not only of governments and of higher education institutions, but also of all stakeholders, including students and their families, teachers, business and industry, the public and private sectors of the economy, legislatures, the media, the community, professional associations and society as well as a greater responsibility of higher education institutions towards society and accountability in the use of public and private, national or international resources;

15. Emphasizing that higher education systems should enhance their capacity to live with uncertainty, to change and bring about change, and to address social needs and to promote solidarity and equity; should preserve and exercise scientific rigour and originality, in a spirit of impartiality, as a basic prerequisite for attaining and sustaining an indispensable level of quality; and should place students at the centre of their concerns, within a lifelong perspective, so as to allow their full integration into the global knowledge society of this new century; and

16. Also believing that international co-operation and exchange are major avenues for advancing higher education throughout the world.

Proclaim the following:

MISSIONS AND FUNCTIONS OF the confederation of Indian Universities
Mission to Educate, to Train and to Undertake Research
We affirm that the core missions and values of higher education, in particular the mission to contribute to the sustainable development and improvement of society as a whole, should be preserved, reinforced and further expanded, namely, to:

17. Educate highly qualified graduates and responsible citizens able to meet the needs of all sectors of human activity, by offering relevant qualifications, including professional training, which combine high-level knowledge and skills, using courses and content continually tailored to the present and future needs of society.

18. Provide opportunities for higher learning and for learning throughout life, giving to learners an optimal range of choice and a flexibility of entry and exit points within the system, as well as an opportunity for individual development and social mobility in order to educate for citizenship and for active participation in society, with a worldwide vision, for endogenous capacity-building, and for the consolidation of human rights, sustainable development, democracy and peace, in a context of justice.

19. Advance, create and disseminate knowledge through research and provide, as part of its service to the community, relevant expertise to assist societies in cultural, social and economic development, promoting and developing scientific and technological research as well as research in the social sciences, the humanities and the creative arts.

20. Help understand, interpret, preserve, enhance, promote and disseminate national and regional, international and historic cultures, in a context of cultural pluralism and diversity.

21. Help protect and enhance societal values by training young people in the values which form the basis of democratic citizenship and by providing critical and detached perspectives to assist in the discussion of strategic options and the reinforcement of humanistic perspectives; and

22. Contribute to the development and improvement of education at all levels, including through the training of teachers.

Ethical Role, Autonomy, Responsibility and
Anticipatory Function
Higher education institutions and their personnel and students should :
23. Preserve and develop their crucial functions, through the exercise of ethics and scientific and intellectual rigour in their various activities.

24. Be able to speak out on ethical, cultural and social problems completely independently and in full awareness of their responsibilities, exercising a kind of intellectual authority that society needs to help it to reflect, understand and act.

25. Enhance their critical and forward-looking functions, through continuing analysis of emerging social, economic, cultural and political trends, providing a focus for forecasting, warning and prevention.

26. Exercise their intellectual capacity and their moral prestige to defend and actively disseminate universally accepted values, including peace, justice, freedom, equality and solidarity.

27. Enjoy full academic autonomy and freedom, conceived as a set of rights and duties, while being fully responsible and accountable to society.

28. Play a role to help identify and to address issues that affect the well-being of communities, nations and global society.

Equity of Access
29. In keeping with Article 26.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, admission to higher education should be based on the merit, capacity, efforts, perseverance and devotion, showed by those seeking access to it, and can take place in a lifelong scheme, at any time, with due recognition of previously acquired skills. As a consequence, no discrimination can be accepted in granting access to higher education on grounds of race, gender, language or religion, or economic, cultural or social distinctions, or physical disabilities.

30. Equity of access to higher education should begin with the reinforcement and, if need be, the reordering of its links with all other levels of education, particularly with secondary education. Higher education institutions must be viewed as, and must also work within themselves to be a part of and encourage, a seamless system starting with early childhood and primary education and continuing through life. Higher education institutions must work in active partnership with parents, schools, students, socio-economic groups and communities.

31. Secondary education should not only prepare qualified candidates for access to higher education by developing the capacity to learn on a broad basis but also open the way to active life by providing training on a wide range of jobs. However, access to higher education should remain open to those successfully completing secondary school, or its equivalent, or presenting entry qualifications, as far as possible, at any age and without any discrimination.

32. As a consequence, the rapid and wide-reaching demand for higher education requires, where appropriate, all policies concerning access to higher education to give priority in the future to the approach based on the merit of the individual.

33. Access to higher education for members of some special target groups, such as indigenous peoples, cultural and linguistic minorities, disadvantaged groups, peoples living under occupation and those who suffer from disabilities, must be actively facilitated, since these groups as collectivities and as individuals may have both experience and talent that can be of great value for the development of societies and nations. Special material help and educational solutions can help overcome the obstacles that these groups face, both in accessing and in continuing higher education.

Enhancing Participation and Promoting the Role of Women
34. Although significant progress has been achieved to enhance the access of women to higher education, various socio-economic, cultural and political obstacles continue in many places in the world to impede their full access and effective integration. To overcome them remains an urgent priority in the renewal process for ensuring an equitable and non-discriminatory system of higher education based on the principle of merit.

35. Further efforts are required to eliminate all gender stereotyping in higher education, to consider gender aspects in different disciplines and to consolidate women’s participation at all levels and in all disciplines, in which they are under-represented and, in particular, to enhance their active involvement in decision-making.

36. Gender studies (women’s studies) should be promoted as a field of knowledge, strategic for the transformation of higher education and society.

37. Efforts should be made to eliminate political and social barriers whereby women are under-represented and in particular to enhance their active involvement at policy and decision-making levels within higher education and society.

Advancing Knowledge through Research in
Science, the Arts and Humanities and the
Dissemination of its Results
38. The advancement of knowledge through research is an essential function of all systems of higher education, which should promote postgraduate studies. Innovation, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity should be promoted and reinforced in programmes with long-term orientations on social and cultural aims and needs. An appropriate balance should be established between basic and target-oriented research.

40. Institutions should ensure that all members of the academic community engaged in research are provided with appropriate training, resources and support. The intellectual and cultural rights on the results of research should be used to the benefit of humanity and should be protected so that they cannot be abused.

41. Research must be enhanced in all disciplines, including the social and human sciences, education (including higher education), engineering, natural sciences, mathematics, informatics and the arts within the framework of national, regional and international research and development policies. Of special importance is the enhancement of research capacities in higher education and research institutions, as mutual enhancement of quality takes place when higher education and research are conducted at a high level within the same institution. These institutions should find the material and financial support required, from both public and private sources.

Long-Term Orientation based on Relevance
42. Relevance in higher education should be assessed in terms of the fit between what society expects of institutions and what they do. This requires ethical standards, political impartiality, critical capacities and, at the same time, a better articulation with the problems of society and the world of work, basing long-term orientations on societal aims and needs, including respect for cultures and environmental protection. The concern is to provide access to both broad general education and targeted, career-specific education, often interdisciplinary, focusing on skills and aptitudes, both of which equip individuals to live in a variety of changing settings, and to be able to change occupations.

43. Higher education should reinforce its role of service to society, especially its activities aimed at eliminating poverty, intolerance, violence, illiteracy, hunger, environmental degradation and disease, mainly through an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach in the analysis of problems and issues.

44. Higher education should enhance its contribution to the development of the whole education system, notably through improved teacher education, curriculum development and educational research.

45. Ultimately, higher education should aim at the creation of a new society - non-violent and non-exploitative - consisting of highly cultivated, motivated and integrated individuals, inspired by love for humanity and guided by wisdom.

Strengthening Co-operation with the World of Work and Analysing and Anticipating Societal Needs
46. In economies characterized by changes and the emergence of new production paradigms based on knowledge and its application, and on the handling of information, the links between higher education, the world of work and other parts of society should be strengthened and renewed.

47. Links with the world of work can be strengthened, through the participation of its representatives in the governance of institutions, the increased use of domestic and international apprenticeship/work-study opportunities for students and teachers, the exchange of personnel between the world of work and higher education institutions and revised curricula more closely aligned with working practices.

48. As a lifelong source of professional training, updating and recycling, institutions of higher education should systematically take into account trends in the world of work and in the scientific, technological and economic sectors. In order to respond to the work requirements, higher education systems and the world of work should jointly develop and assess learning processes, bridging programmes and prior learning assessment and recognition programmes, which integrate theory and training on the job. Within the framework of their anticipatory function, higher education institutions could contribute to the creation of new jobs, although that is not their only function.

49. Developing entrepreneurial skills and initiative should become major concerns of higher education, in order to facilitate employability of graduates who will increasingly be called upon to be not only job seekers but also and above all to become job creators. Higher education institutions should give the opportunity to students to fully develop their own abilities with a sense of social responsibility, educating them to become full participants in democratic society and promoters of changes that will foster equity and justice.

Diversification for Enhanced Equity of Opportunity
50. Diversifying higher education models and recruitment methods and criteria is essential both to meet increasing international demand and to provide access to various delivery modes and to extend access to an ever-wider public, in a lifelong perspective, based on flexible entry and exit points to and from the system of higher education.

51. More diversified systems of higher education are characterized by new types of tertiary institutions: public, private and non-profit institutions, amongst others. Institutions should be able to offer a wide variety of education and training opportunities: traditional degrees, short courses, part-time study, flexible schedules, modularized courses, supported learning at a distance, etc.

Innovative Educational Approaches: Critical Thinking and Creativity
52. In a world undergoing rapid changes, there is a perceived need for a new vision and paradigm of higher education, which should be student-oriented, calling in most countries for in-depth reforms and an open access policy so as to cater to ever more diversified categories of people, and of its contents, methods, practices and means of delivery, based on new types of links and partnerships with the community and with the broadest sectors of society.

53. Higher education institutions should educate students to become well informed and deeply motivated citizens, who can think critically, analyse problems of society, look for solutions to the problems of society, apply them and accept social responsibilities.

54. To achieve these goals, it may be necessary to recast curricula, using new and appropriate methods, so as to go beyond cognitive mastery of disciplines. New pedagogical and didactical approaches should be accessible and promoted in order to facilitate the acquisition of skills, competencies and abilities for communication, creative and critical analysis, independent thinking and team work in multicultural contexts, where creativity also involves combining traditional or local knowledge and know-how with advanced science and technology. These recast curricula should take into account the gender dimension and the specific cultural, historic and economic context of each country. The teaching of human rights standards and education on the needs of communities in all parts of the world should be reflected in the curricula of all disciplines, particularly those preparing for entrepreneurship. Academic personnel should play a significant role in determining the curriculum.

55. New methods of education will also imply new types of teaching-learning materials. These have to be coupled with new methods of testing that will promote not only powers of memory but also powers of comprehension, skills for practical work and creativity.

Higher Education Personnel and Students as Major Actors
56. A vigorous policy of staff development is an essential element of higher education institutions. Clear policies should be established concerning higher education teachers, who nowadays need to focus on teaching students how to learn and how to take initiatives rather than being exclusively founts of knowledge. Adequate provision should be made for research and for updating and improving pedagogical skills, through appropriate staff development programmes, encouraging constant innovation in curricula, teaching and learning methods, and ensuring appropriate professional and financial status, and for excellence in research and teaching. Furthermore, in view of the role of higher education for lifelong learning, experience outside the institutions ought to be considered as a relevant qualification for higher educational staff.

57. Clear policies should be established by all higher education institutions preparing teachers of early childhood education and for primary and secondary schools, providing stimulus for constant innovation in curricula, best practices in teaching methods and familiarity with diverse learning styles. It is vital to have appropriately trained administrative and technical personnel.

58. National and institutional decision-makers should place students and their needs at the centre of their concerns, and should consider them as major partners and responsible stakeholders in the renewal of higher education. This should include student involvement in issues that affect that level of education, in evaluation, the renovation of teaching methods and curricula and, in the institutional framework in force, in policy-formulation and institutional management. As students have the right to organize and represent themselves, students’ involvement in these issues should be guaranteed.

59. Guidance and counselling services should be developed, in cooperation with student organizations, in order to assist students in the transition to higher education at whatever age and to take account of the needs of ever more diversified categories of learners. Apart from those entering higher education from schools or further education colleges, they should also take account of the needs of those leaving and returning in a lifelong process. Such support is important in ensuring a good match between student and course, reducing drop-out. Students who do drop out should have suitable opportunities to return to higher education if and when appropriate.

Qualitative Evaluation
60. Quality in higher education is a multidimensional concept, which should embrace all its functions, and activities: teaching and academic programmes, research and scholarship, staffing, students, buildings, facilities, equipment, services to the community and the academic environment. Internal self-evaluation and external review, conducted openly by independent specialists, if possible with international expertise, are vital for enhancing quality. Independent national bodies should be established and comparative standards of quality, recognized at international level, should be defined. Due attention should be paid to specific institutional, national and regional contexts in order to take into account diversity and to avoid uniformity. Stakeholders should be an integral part of the institutional evaluation process.

61. Quality also requires that higher education should be characterized by its international dimension: exchange of knowledge, interactive networking, mobility of teachers and students, and international research projects, while taking into account the national cultural values and circumstances.

62. To attain and sustain national, regional or international quality, certain components are particularly relevant, notably careful selection of staff and continuous staff development, in particular through the promotion of appropriate programmes for academic staff development, including teaching/learning methodology and mobility between countries, between higher education institutions, and between higher education institutions and the world of work, as well as student mobility within and between countries. The new information technologies are an important tool in this process, owing to their impact on the acquisition of knowledge and know-how.

The Potential and the Challenge of Technology
63. The rapid breakthroughs in new information and communication technologies will further change the way knowledge is developed, acquired and delivered. It is also important to note that the new technologies offer opportunities to innovate on course content and teaching methods and to widen access to higher learning. However, it should be borne in mind that new information technology does not reduce the need for teachers but changes their role in relation to the learning process and that the continuous dialogue that converts information into knowledge and understanding becomes fundamental. Higher education institutions should lead in drawing on the advantages and potential of new information and communication technologies, ensuring quality and maintaining high standards for education practices and outcomes in a spirit of openness, equity and international co-operation by:

64. Engaging in networks, technology transfer, capacity-building, developing teaching materials and sharing experience of their application in teaching, training and research, and making knowledge accessible to all;

65. Creating new learning environments, ranging from distance education facilities to complete virtual higher education institutions and systems, capable of bridging distances and developing high-quality systems of education, thus serving social and economic advancement and democratization as well as other relevant priorities of society, while ensuring that these virtual education facilities, based on regional, continental or global networks, function in a way that respects cultural and social identities;

66. Noting that, in making full use of information and communication technology (ICT) for educational purposes, particular attention should be paid to removing the grave inequalities which exist among and also within the countries of the world with regard to access to new information and communication technologies and to the production of the corresponding resources;

67. Adapting ICT to national, regional and local needs and securing technical, educational, management and institutional systems to sustain it;

68. Facilitating, through international co-operation, the identification of the objectives and interests of all countries, particularly the developing countries, equitable access and the strengthening of infrastructures in this field and the dissemination of such technology throughout society;

69. Closely following the evolution of the ‘knowledge society’ in order to ensure high quality and equitable regulations for access to prevail;

70. Taking the new possibilities created by the use of ICTs into account, while realizing that it is, above all, institutions of higher education that are using ICTs in order to modernize their work, and not ICTs transforming institutions of higher education from real to virtual institutions.

Strengthening Higher Education Management and Financing
71. The management and financing of higher education require the development of appropriate planning and policy-analysis capacities and strategies, based on partnerships established between higher education institutions and state and national planning and co-ordination bodies, so as to secure appropriately streamlined management and the cost-effective use of resources. Higher education institutions should adopt forward-looking management practices that respond to the needs of their environments. Managers in higher education must be responsive, competent and able to evaluate regularly, by internal and external mechanisms, the effectiveness of procedures and administrative rules.

72. Higher education institutions must be given autonomy to manage their internal affairs, but with this autonomy must come clear and transparent accountability to the government, legislature, students and the wider society.

73. The ultimate goal of management should be to enhance the institutional mission by ensuring high-quality teaching, training and research, and services to the community. This objective requires governance that combines social vision, including understanding of global issues, with efficient managerial skills. Leadership in higher education is thus a major social responsibility and can be significantly strengthened through dialogue with all stakeholders, especially teachers and students, in higher education. The participation of teaching faculty in the governing bodies of higher education institutions should be taken into account, within the framework of current institutional arrangements, bearing in mind the need to keep the size of these bodies within reasonable bounds.

74. The promotion of North-South co-operation to ensure the necessary financing for strengthening higher education in the developing countries is essential.

Financing of Higher Education as a Public Service
The funding of higher education requires both public and private resources. The role of the government remains essential in this regard.

75. The diversification of funding sources reflects the support that society provides to higher education and must be further strengthened to ensure the development of higher education, increase its efficiency and maintain its quality and relevance. Public support for higher education and research remains essential to ensure a balanced achievement of educational and social missions.

76. Society as a whole must support education at all levels, including higher education, given its role in promoting sustainable economic, social and cultural development. Mobilization for this purpose depends on public awareness and involvement of the public and private sectors of the economy, legislature, the media, governmental and non-governmental organizations, students as well as institutions, families and all the social actors involved with higher education.

Sharing Knowledge and Know-How across Borders and Continents
77. The principle of solidarity and true partnership amongst higher education institutions worldwide is crucial for education and training in all fields that encourage an understanding of global issues, the role of democratic governance and skilled human resources in their resolution, and the need for living together with different cultures and values. The practice of multilingualism, faculty and student exchange programmes and institutional linkage to promote intellectual and scientific co-operation should be an integral part of all higher education systems.

78. The principles of international co-operation based on solidarity, recognition and mutual support, true partnership that equitably serves the interests of the partners and the value of sharing knowledge and know-how across borders should govern relationships among higher education institutions in both developed and developing countries and should benefit the least developed countries in particular. Consideration should be given to the need for safeguarding higher education institutional capacities in regions suffering from conflict or natural disasters. Consequently, an international dimension should permeate the curriculum, and the teaching and learning processes.

79. Regional and international normative instruments for the recognition of studies should be ratified and implemented, including certification of the skills, competencies and abilities of graduates, making it easier for students to change courses, in order to facilitate mobility within and between national systems.

From ‘Brain Drain’ to ‘Brain Gain’
80. The ‘brain drain’ has yet to be stemmed, since it continues to deprive the developing countries and those in transition, of the high-level expertise necessary to accelerate their socio-economic progress. International co-operation schemes should be based on long-term partnerships between institutions in the South and the North, and also promote South-South co-operation. Priority should be given to training programmes in the developing countries, in centres of excellence forming regional and international networks, with short periods of specialized and intensive study abroad.

81. Consideration should be given to creating an environment conducive to attracting and retaining skilled human capital, either through national policies or international arrangements to facilitate the return - permanent or temporary - of highly trained scholars and researchers to their countries of origin. At the same time, efforts must be directed towards a process of ‘brain gain’ through collaboration programmes that, by virtue of their international dimension, enhance the building and strengthening of institutions and facilitate full use of endogenous capacities.

Partnership and Alliances
82. Partnership and alliances amongst stakeholders - national and institutional policy-makers, teaching and related staff, researchers and students, and administrative and technical personnel in institutions of higher education, the world of work, community groups - is a powerful force in managing change. Also, non-governmental organizations are key actors in this process. Henceforth, partnership, based on common interest, mutual respect and credibility, should be a prime matrix for renewal in higher education.

The Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU) adopts this Declaration and reaffirms the right of all people to education and the right of access to higher education based on individual merit and capacity.

The Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU) pledges to act together within the frame of our individual and collective responsibilities, by taking all necessary measures in order to realize the principles concerning higher education contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the Convention against Discrimination in Education.

The Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU) solemnly reaffirms the commitment to peace. To that end, CIU is determined to accord high priority to education for reducing peacelessness, unemployment, pollution and intolerance.

The Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU) adopts, therefore, this Declaration on Higher Education and Development. To achieve the goals set forth in this Declaration and, in particular, for immediate action, CIU agrees on the following Framework for Priority Action for Change and Development of Higher Education.

Priority Actions at National Level
States, including their governments, legislatures and other decision-makers, should:

83. Establish, where appropriate, the legislative, political and financial framework for the reform and further development of higher education, in keeping with the terms of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which establishes that higher education shall be ‘accessible to all on the basis of merit’. No discrimination can be accepted, no one can be excluded from higher education or its study fields, degree levels and types of institutions on grounds of race, gender, language, religion, or age or because of any economic or social distinctions or physical disabilities;

84. Reinforce the links between higher education and research;

85. Consider and use higher education as a catalyst for the entire education system;

86. Develop higher education institutions to include lifelong learning approaches, giving learners an optimal range of choice and a flexibility of entry and exit points within the system, and redefine their role accordingly, which implies the development of open and continuous access to higher learning and the need for bridging programmes and prior learning assessment and recognition;

87. Make efforts, when necessary, to establish close links between higher education and research institutions, taking into account the fact that education and research are two closely related elements in the establishment of knowledge;

88. Develop innovative schemes of collaboration between institutions of higher education and different sectors of society to ensure that higher education and research programmes effectively contribute to local, regional and national development;

89. Fulfil their commitments to higher education and be accountable for the pledges adopted with their concurrence, at several forums, particularly over the past decade, with regard to human, material and financial resources, human development and education in general, and to higher education in particular;

90. Have a policy framework to ensure new partnerships and the involvement of all relevant stakeholders in all aspects of higher education: the evaluation process, including curriculum and pedagogical renewal, and guidance and counselling services; and, in the framework of existing institutional arrangements, policy-making and institutional governance;

91. Define and implement policies to eliminate all gender stereotyping in higher education and to consolidate women’s participation at all levels and in all disciplines in which they are under-represented at present and, in particular, to enhance their active involvement in decision-making;

92. Recognize students as the centre of attention of higher education, and one of its stakeholders. They should be involved, by means of adequate institutional structures, in the renewal of their level of education (including curriculum and pedagogical reform), and policy decision, in the framework of existing institutional arrangements;

93. Recognize that students have the right to organize themselves autonomously;

94. Promote and facilitate national and international mobility of teaching staff and students as an essential part of the quality and relevance of higher education;

95. Provide and ensure those conditions necessary for the exercise of academic freedom and institutional autonomy so as to allow institutions of higher education, as well as those individuals engaged in higher education and research, to fulfil their obligations to society.

96. States in which enrolment in higher education is low by internationally accepted comparative standards should strive to ensure a level of higher education adequate for relevant needs in the public and private sectors of society and to establish plans for diversifying and expanding access, particularly benefiting all minorities and disadvantaged groups.

97. The interface with general, technical and professional secondary education should be reviewed in depth, in the context of lifelong learning. Access to higher education in whatever form must remain open to those successfully completing secondary education or its equivalent or meeting entry qualifications at any age, while creating gateways to higher education, especially for older students without any formal secondary education certificates, by attaching more importance to their professional experience. However, preparation for higher education should not be the sole or primary purpose of secondary education, which should also prepare for the world of work, with complementary training whenever required, in order to provide knowledge, capacities and skills for a wide range of jobs. The concept of bridging programmes should be promoted to allow those entering the job market to return to studies at a later date.

98. Concrete steps should be taken to reduce the widening gap between industrially developed and developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, with regard to higher education and research. Concrete steps are also needed to encourage increased co-operation between countries at all levels of economic development with regard to higher education and research. Consideration should be given to making budgetary provisions for that purpose, and developing mutually beneficial agreements in order to sustain co-operative activities and projects through appropriate incentives and funding in education, research and the development of high-level experts.

99. Each higher education institution should define its mission according to the present and future needs of society and base it on an awareness of the fact that higher education is essential for any country or region to reach the necessary level of sustainable and environmentally sound economic and social development, cultural creativity nourished by better knowledge and understanding of the cultural heritage, higher living standards, and internal and international harmony and peace, based on human rights, democracy, tolerance and mutual respect. These missions should incorporate the concept of academic freedom.

In establishing priorities in their programmes and structures, higher education institutions should:

100. Take into account the need to abide by the rules of ethics and scientific and intellectual rigour, and the multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach;

101. Be primarily concerned to establish systems of access for the benefit of all persons who have the necessary abilities and motivations;

102. Use their autonomy and high academic standards to contribute to the sustainable development of society and to the resolution of the issues facing the society of the future. They should develop their capacity to give forewarning through the analysis of emerging social, cultural, economic and political trends, approached in a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary manner, giving particular attention to:

high quality, a clear sense of the social pertinence of studies and their anticipatory function, based on scientific grounds;

knowledge of fundamental social questions, in particular related to the elimination of poverty, to sustainable development, to intercultural dialogue and to the shaping of a culture of peace;

the need for close connection with effective research organizations or institutions that perform well in the sphere of research; and

fundamentals of human ethics, applied to each profession and to all areas of human endeavour.

103. Ensure, especially in universities and as far as possible, that faculty members participate in teaching, research, tutoring students and steering institutional affairs.

104. Take all necessary measures to reinforce their service to the community, especially their activities aimed at eliminating poverty, intolerance, violence, illiteracy, hunger and disease, through an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach in the analysis of challenges, problems and different subjects.

105. Set their relations with the world of work on a new basis involving effective partnerships with all social actors concerned, starting from a reciprocal harmonization of action and the search for solutions to pressing problems of humanity, all this within a framework of responsible autonomy and academic freedom.

106. Ensure high quality of international standing, consider accountability and both internal and external evaluation, with due respect for autonomy and academic freedom, as being normal and inherent in their functioning, and institutionalize transparent systems, structures or mechanisms specific thereto.

107. As lifelong education requires academic staff to update and improve their teaching skills and learning methods, even more than in the present systems mainly based on short periods of higher teaching, establish appropriate academic staff development structures and/or mechanisms and programmes.

108. Promote and develop research, which is a necessary feature of all higher education systems, in all disciplines, including the human and social sciences and arts, given their relevance for development are needed to ensure continued progress towards such key national objectives as access, equity, quality, relevance and diversification.

109. Remove gender inequalities and biases in curricula and research, and take all appropriate measures to ensure balanced representation of both men and women among students and teachers, at all levels of management.

110. Provide, where appropriate, guidance and counselling, remedial courses, training in how to study and other forms of student support, including measures to improve student living conditions.

111. While the need for closer links between higher education and the world of work is important worldwide, it is particularly vital for the developing countries and especially the least developed countries, given their low level of economic development. Governments of these countries should take appropriate measures to reach this objective through appropriate measures such as strengthening institutions for higher/professional/vocational education. At the same time, international action is needed in order to help establish joint undertakings between higher education and industry in these countries. It will be necessary to give consideration to ways in which higher education graduates could be supported, through various schemes, following the positive experience of the micro-credit system and other incentives, in order to start small- and medium-size enterprises. At the institutional level, developing entrepreneurial skills and initiative should become a major concern of higher education, in order to facilitate employability of graduates who will increasingly be required not only to be job-seekers but to become job-creators.

112. The use of new technologies should be generalized to the greatest extent possible to help higher education institutions, to reinforce academic development, to widen access, to attain universal scope and to extend knowledge, as well as to facilitate education throughout life. Governments, educational institutions and the private sector should ensure that informatics and communication network infrastructures, computer facilities and human resources training are adequately provided.

Institutions of higher education should be open to adult learners:
113. By developing coherent mechanisms to recognize the outcomes of learning undertaken in different contexts, and to ensure that credit is transferable within and between institutions, sectors and states.

114. By establishing joint higher education/community research and training partnerships, and by bringing the services of higher education institutions to outside groups.

115. By carrying out interdisciplinary research in all aspects of adult education and learning with the participation of adult learners themselves.

116. By creating opportunities for adult learning in flexible, open and creative ways.

117. Co-operation should be conceived of as an integral part of the institutional missions of higher education institutions and systems. Inter-governmental organizations, donor agencies and non-governmental organizations should extend their action in order to develop inter-university co-operation projects in particular through twinning institutions, based on solidarity and partnership, as a means of bridging the gap between rich and poor countries in the vital areas of knowledge production and application. Each institution of higher education should envisage the creation of an appropriate structure and/or mechanism for promoting and managing international co-operation.

118. The intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations active in higher education, the states through their bilateral and multilateral co-operation programmes, the academic community and all concerned partners in society should further promote international academic mobility as a means to advance knowledge and knowledge-sharing in order to bring about and promote solidarity as a main element of the global knowledge society of tomorrow, including through strong support a the joint work plan 2004-2010 on the recognition of studies, degrees and diplomas in higher education and through large-scale co-operative action involving, inter alia, the establishment of an educational credit transfer scheme, with particular emphasis on South-South co-operation, the needs of the least developed countries and of the small states with few higher education institutions or none at all.

119. Institutions of higher education in industrialized countries should strive to make arrangements for international co-operation with sister institutions in developing countries and in particular with those of poor countries. In their co-operation, the institutions should make efforts to ensure fair and just recognition of studies abroad. Initiatives should be taken to develop higher education throughout the world, setting itself clear-cut goals that could lead to tangible results. One method might be to implement projects in different regions renewing efforts towards creating and/or strengthening centres of excellence in developing countries relying on networks of national, regional and international higher education institutions.

120. All concerned parts of society, should also undertake action in order to alleviate the negative effects of ‘brain drain’ and to shift to a dynamic process of ‘brain gain’. An overall analysis is required in all regions of the world of the causes and effects of brain drain. A vigorous campaign should be launched through the concerted effort of the international community and on the basis of academic solidarity and should encourage the return to their home country of expatriate academics, as well as the involvement of university volunteers - newly retired academics or young academics at the beginning of their career - who wish to teach and undertake research at higher education institutions in developing countries. At the same time it is essential to support the developing countries in their efforts to build and strengthen their own educational capacities. Within this framework, International Organisations should:

121. Promote better co-ordination among intergovernmental, supranational and non-governmental organizations, agencies and foundations that sponsor existing programmes and projects for international co-operation in higher education. Furthermore, co-ordination efforts should take place in the context of national priorities. This could be conducive to the pooling and sharing of resources, avoid overlapping and promote better identification of projects, greater impact of action and increased assurance of their validity through collective agreement and review. Programmes aiming at the rapid transfer of knowledge, supporting institutional development and establishing centres of excellence in all areas of knowledge, in particular for peace education, conflict resolution, human rights and democracy, should be supported by institutions and by public and private donors.

122. Jointly with the various intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, become a forum of reflection on higher education issues aiming at:

(i) preparing update reports on the state of knowledge on higher education issues in all parts of the world;

(ii) promoting innovative projects of training and research, intended to enhance the specific role of higher education in lifelong education;

(iii) reinforcing international co-operation and emphasizing the role of higher education for citizenship education, sustainable development and peace; and

(iv) facilitating exchange of information and establishing, when appropriate, a database on successful experiences and innovations that can be consulted by institutions confronted with problems in their reforms of higher education.

123. Take specific action to support institutions of higher education in the least developed parts of the world and in regions suffering the effects of conflict or natural disasters.

124. Make renewed efforts towards creating or/and strengthening centres of excellence in developing countries.

125. Take the initiative to draw up an international instrument on academic freedom, autonomy and social responsibility.

Ensure follow-up of this Declaration jointly with other inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations and with all higher education stakeholders. It should have a crucial role in promoting international cooperation in the field of higher education in implementing this follow-up under the aegis of the Confederation of Indian Universities (CIU) and in the light of the following context :

126. At the start of the twenty-first century, universities nationwide and worldwide, though their circumstances differ, face important and common challenges.

127. The phenomenon of globalisation which affects diverse sectors - the economy, the media, etc. - also has its impact on higher education throughout the world. It demands change and an explicit policy of internationalisation by universities.

127. The unprecedented development of information and communication technologies is an important vehicle in the processes of globalisation and technological accleration which carry with them opportunities and challenges that are specific to universities and to the way they fulfil their missions.

128. More than ever, the creation of knowledge, access to knowledge and its development are central to the development of societies. The knowledge society requires a new generation of skilled people. In this context, demand for more differentiated higher and continuing education, including professional development as well as open and distance learning, is in all countries expanding and, in some regions, overwhelming.

129. The rapid production of knowledge and technological development spur on the quest for quality, excellence and relevance. The university has a special responsibility to ensure that attention is paid to solving ethical questions. In this setting, the university's critical role towards society assumes a new urgency.

130. The preconditions for universities and other types of higher education institutions to cope successfully with new challenges such as these remain, however, basically unchanged. These preconditions include autonomy of action, academic freedom and adequate human and financial resources.

131. For higher education of quality to be today and in the future a motor of social, cultural and economic development, other conditions are required, amongst which effective dialogue with external partners and responsible university governance.

As a social institution, the university cannot be replaced. Hence, it must continue to adapt and change if the challenges are to be met. It will remain an institution central to societies throughout the world as long as its activities make a difference to better the condition of humankind.

strategies for a confederative approach

1. To encourage links between institutions of higher education throughout the country.

2. To base the mission of the Confederation on the fundamental principles for which every university should stand, namely the right to pursue knowledge for its own sake, to follow wherever the search for truth may lead, the tolerance of divergent opinion and freedom from political interference.

3. To aim to give expression to the obligation of universities to promote, through teaching and research, the principles of freedom and justice, of human dignity and solidarity, and to contribute through regional, national and international cooperation to the development of national and moral assistance for the strengthening of higher education generally.

4. To link up its members, offer them quality services and provide a forum for the universities from all over the country to work together and to speak on behalf of universities, and of higher education in general, and to represent their concerns and interests in public debate and to outside parties.

5. To pursue its goals through future oriented collective action including information services, informed policy discussion, research and publications.

6. To facilitate the exchange of experience and learning.

7. To restate and defend the values that underlie and determine the proper functioning of universities in the Indian subcontinent.

8. To uphold and contribute to the development of a long term vision of universities' role and responsibility in society.

9. To voice the concerns for higher education with regard to policies of national and international bodies.

10. To contribute to a better understanding of current trends and developments through analysis, research and debate.

11. To provide comprehensive and authoritative information on higher education systems, institutions and qualifications worldwide.

12. To act as a cooperation and service-oriented organisation to promote the exchange of information, experience and ideas to facilitate academic mobility and mutual, technical, national and international collaboration among universities, and to contribute through research and meetings to informed higher education policy debate.

13. To organise congress, conferences, seminars, round tables and workshops etc.

14. To conduct comparative studies and higher education policy research.

15. To strengthen cooperation and clearing-house activities.

16. To establish national information networks.

17. To provide consultancy, credential evaluation and advice.

18. To invite university level degree granting institutions whose main objective is higher education and research, irrespective of whether or not they carry the name of university.

19. To maintain and preserve university autonomy, academic freedom and mutual understanding.

20. To stand for the right to pursue knowledge for its own sake.

21. To remain free from political and economic interference, and give, room for divergent opinion.

22. To work for the advancement of ethical values in the work of the Confederation and its members as well as in society and respect for diversity.

23. To remember the responsibility of universities and academies as guardians of free intellectual activity.

24. To stand for the universities' obligation as social institutions to deliver education, research and service to the community, and, in connection with this, to advance the principles of freedom and of justice, of sustainable development, human dignity and of solidarity.

25. To conserve the obligation of universities to foster constructive criticism and intellectual independence in the research for truth.

26. To contribute to the development of the long term vision of the university's role and responsibilities in society.

27. To strengthen solidarity and to contribute to reducing inequalities amongst universities, while keeping alive their cultural differences.

28. To promote access to higher education and equal opportunities for students.

29. To encourage quality and excellence worldwide, through sharing, knowledge, know-how and experience, through collaboration and through networking.

30. To help universities to become better learning organisations (for students, for teachers, for administrators).

31. To contribute to a better understanding of developments in higher education, through analysis, research and debate, as well as through the provision of information services on higher education.

32. To design and implement programmes for its members in partnership with other organisations working in the same field.

33. To pledge itself to be an open, inclusive and transparent organisation, the common voice of the university level institutions.

34. To provide a centre of cooperation among the universities and similar institutions of higher education, as well as organisations in the field of higher education generally, and to be an advocate for their concerns.

35. To facilitate the interchange of students and academic staff, and develop means for the better distribution and exchange of laboratory material, books and other equipment for university study and research.

36. To formulate the basic principles and higher education values for which the CIU will stand for.

37. To establish a strong structural relationship with the national as well as regional associations of universities and seek their direct involvement in the life and work of CIU.

38. To focus its activities on institutional examples regarding the use of new information and communication technologies in teaching and learning.

39. To encourage sustainability to be considered as being central to teaching, research, outreach and operations at universities and to identified exemplary practices and strategies.

40. To prepare comprehensive assessments periodically on how the principles of sustainable development can best be pursued and promoted by higher education institutions.

41. To identify the key issues of a future-oriented higher education policy debate, as well as concrete needs for support in academic exchange, knowledge transfer, and capacity building through international cooperation.

42. To assess our respective capacities to respond to such needs, the complementarity and uniqueness of our respective possibilities and responsibilities, as compared with what can be better done by others, bilaterally or multi-laterally, on the institutional, national, regional or international level.

43. To establish appropriate networking structures and facilities that will allow to serve better, through shared efforts, the needs and interests of our common higher education constituency.

44. To translate into action the services set out by CIU more clearly in terms of support to concrete cooperation needs, both of individual universities and of partner organisations, and to identify new services as best corresponding to the Confederation's vocation and possibilities; and to give expression to its internal and external missions through a strengthened confederative life, including a broader interaction with other university organisations.

45. To disseminate relevant information on the world of higher education in an international perspective, on missions, policies and strategies, in the form of concise briefs and overviews, easily accessible and usable for higher education policy and decision-makers.

46. To have a similar approach in relation to issues of research and debate, comparison of experiences, publications or conjointly organised special meetings and seminars for university leaders and administrators.

47. To provide a link to consultancy, second opinions and referee networks for universities, particularly in developing countries, who wish to have access to independent advice, for example on directives from governments and different agencies or on institutional development plans.

48. To maintain a pool of independent advisors to be made available for special tasks, third party assessments, legal advice, management advice, helping with analysis, formulation of strategic plans, governance strategies, and codes related to academic freedom, etc.

49. To offer consultancy to agencies related to university cooperation.

50. To evaluate the institutional impact of university links and collaborative programmes, independent from the usual evaluation by sponsors to be pointed to practical and ethical guidelines for collaboration and codes of good practice, which could serve universities in their interaction.

51. To benefit from academic freedom and institutional autonomy with regard to the central mission of research and teaching.

52. To assume, in carrying out the tasks, its responsibility to society and to promote the principles of freedom, justice, human dignity and solidarity.

53. To reduce the tensions arising within the universities between the requirements of technological and economic globalisation and the specificities of cultural and national roots.

54. To contribute to the production and dissemination of information and knowledge concerning facts, trends and developments in higher education.

55. To help contribute to the production and dissemination of reflection, research and debate concerning the universities.

56. To help clarify, disseminate and refine a vision of the university and of its value base.

57. To pay particular attention to strengthening solidarity and reducing inequalities between universities of different backgrounds, resources and capacities.

58. To express a common voice of the universities, on national as well as global level, vis-a-vis partners like national and international statutory bodies and UN agencies as well as the public opinion.

59. To catalyse the cooperation of universities and university organisations amongst themselves and with other partners, with regard to major questions of society, which are national as well as international in nature and to which universities must make an important contribution, such as: the construction of peace and democracy; sustainable development; the challenges and stakes of globalisation and accelerated change in society; the commitment to ethical standards in the conduct of science and technology.

60. To offer to other national and international university and higher education organisations a preferential platform for information, contacts and networking, and to participate itself in such international networks.

61. To stipulate the indissociable principles for which every university should stand, including the right to pursue knowledge for its own sake and to follow wherever the search for truth may lead; the tolerance of divergent opinion and freedom from political interference; the obligation as social institutions to promote, through teaching and research, the principles of freedom and justice, of human dignity and to develop mutually material and moral aid on both national as well as international levels.

62. To collect data regarding the new forms of higher education over the ensuing half century with special reference to the number of universities, of academic staff, of students, of the emergence of a world economy, of its benefits and its dangers with a view to locating the required practical nature of the university's historic and abiding commitment to universalism, pluralism and humanism.

63. To evaluate whether in the course of the twentieth century, which has seen an unparalleled growth in knowledge, in research and their diffusion, the universities have shouldered the responsibilities in the common endeavour of human development, social, economic, technical and cultural advancement, and in responding to the major planetary problems such as environmental protection and poverty eradication, violence and social exclusion.

64. To promote the philosophy that human development and the continued extension of knowledge depend upon the freedom to examine, to enquire, and that academic freedom and university autonomy are essential to that end.

65. To urge universities to seek, establish and disseminate a clearer understanding of Sustainable development - "development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations" - and encourage more appropriate sustainable development principles and practices at the local, national and global levels, in ways consistent with their missions.

66. To utilise resources of the university to encourage a better understanding on the part of the Central and the State Governments and the public at large of the inter-related physical, biological and social dangers facing the planet Earth, and to recognise the significant interdependence and international dimensions of sustainable development.

67. To emphasise the ethical obligation of the present generation to overcome those practices of resource utilisation and those widespread disparities which lie at the root of environmental unsustainability.

68. To enhance the capacity of the university to teach and undertake research and action in society on sustainable development principles, to increase environmental literacy, and to enhance the understanding of environmental ethics within the university and with the public at large.

69. To cooperate with one another and with all segments of society in the pursuit of practical and policy measures to achieve sustainable development and thereby safeguard the interests of future generations.

70. To encourage universities to review their own operations to reflect best sustainable development practices.

71. To make an institutional commitment to the principle and practice of sustainable development within the academic milieu and to communicate that commitment to its students, its employees and to the public at large.

72. To promote sustainable consumption practices in its own operations.

73. To develop the capacities of its academic staff to teach environmental literacy.

74. To encourage among both staff and students an environmental perspective, whatever the field of study.

75. To utilise the intellectual resources of the university to build strong environmental education programmes.

76. To encourage interdisciplinary and collaborative research programmes related to sustainable development as part of the institution's central mission and to overcome traditional barriers between disciplines and departments.

77. To emphasise the ethical obligations of the university community - current students, faculty and staff - to understand and defeat the forces that lead to environmental degradation, and the inter-generational inequities; to work at ways that will help its academic community, and the graduates, and the governments that support it, to accept these ethical obligations.

78. To promote interdisciplinary networks of environmental experts at the local, national and international levels in order to disseminate knowledge and to collaborate on common environmental projects in both research and education.

79. To promote the mobility of staff and students as essential to the free trade of knowledge;

80. To forge partnerships with other sectors of society in transferring innovative and appropriate technologies that can benefit and enhance sustainable development practices.

81. To devote its activities to the study of systems, institutions and processes in higher education to specially focus on the historical role of higher education in society, contemporary policy problems, and how universities and colleges can change to meet the growing educational, research, and public service needs of a "knowledge" society.

82. To promote public confidence that quality of provision and standards of awards in higher education are being safeguarded and enhanced.

83. To help other confederal bodies of universities and higher education institutions in other countries aimed at providing quality education and at supporting synergistic ventures in teaching, examination, research and community service programmes.

84. To seek to make a significant contribution to the understanding of policy-making, governance and management of universities and other higher education institutions.

85. To emphasise equity and access and the improvement of educational experiences of people of all age levels and backgrounds.

86. To include partnerships with other like minded organisations to address a wide array of problems, drawing upon the insights of academic disciplines and professional perspectives.

87. To meet the widely felt need in the Indian subcontinent for a centre for policy research and cooperation in education in the Indian perspective, with the sole purpose to contribute to policy analysis in education and training, to carry out evaluation of systems, reforms, programmes and institutions, and to provide technical assistance and support to all interested actors in this field.

88. To help the member universities in designing new information and communications technologies for heralding as a revolution for the world of learning and to fulfil the promise of better and cheaper higher education for more students.

89. To review the open and distance learning in the context of present challenges and opportunities, describe relevant concepts and contribution, outline significant current global and regional trends, suggest policy and strategy considerations and identify CIU's role in capacity building, national as well international cooperation.

89. To maintain an inventory of successful strategies to increase the participation of women in higher education and promote the principle of gender equity, and to increase access and retention as well as to improve the quality of education for all women in universities.

90. To serve as a clearing house of information for providing regular opportunities for the discussion on university development in general and on academic development in particular with a view to assisting the member universities in the recruitment and placement of faculty and staff, exchange of teachers and students and in the development of cooperative arrangements.

91. To establish relations with significant players and opinion makers from education, business, culture, law, and government sectors in order to facilitate strategic alliances with other organisations.

92. To support preparation, production and widespread distribution of educational materials on higher education with a view to strengthen the employment generation movement.

92. To help promote such new Central and State legislation or amendments as may be deemed necessary for the development of higher education.

93. To encourage the students of all universities to be active, to emphasize the personal nature of learning, to accept that difference is desirable, to recognise student's right to make mistakes, to tolerate imperfection, encourage openness of mind, to make feel respected and accepted, to facilitate discovery, to put emphasis on self evaluation in cooperation, and to permit confrontation of ideas.

94. To promote the hypothesis that learning is primarily controlled by the learner, is unique and individual, is affected by the total state of the learner, is cooperative and collaborative, is a consequence of experience, is not directly observable, is both an emotional and intellectual process, is evolutionary process, is development oriented, and, is quite sustainable.

95. To collaborate, affiliate and federate with the Central and the State Governments, agencies and bodies for implementing the projects on higher education.

96. To raise and borrow money for the purpose of the Confederation in such a manner as may be decided from time to time and to prescribe the membership fees, charges, grants in aid etc.

97. To purchase, take on lease or exchange, hire or otherwise acquire properties, movable or immovable and rights and privileges all over the world, which may be deemed necessary or convenient for the benefit of the Confederation and to sell, lease, mortgage, dispose or otherwise deal with all or any part of the property of the Confederation.

98. To open branches, chapters and constitutent centres in different parts of the country and get them registered with appropriate authorities if needed and felt conducive for the attainment of the aims and objects of the Confederation.

99. To invest the money of the Confederation not immediately required in such securities and in such manner as may be decided from time to time, the money especially collected through subscriptions, advertisements, sponsorship, sale of publications, fees, gifts, endowments, donations, grants etc.

100. To finally provide information, knowledge, wisdom, and education that prepares every body for educational leadership and social responsibility enabling to think and communicate effectively and to develop a global awareness and sensitivity for a better global understanding, world peace and unity.

101. And to generally do all that is incidental and conducive to the attainment of the aims and objects mentioned above.

higher education for employment generation

The generation of productive and adequately remunerated employment is an indispensable component in the fight against poverty. While this task presents a major challenge for all the States and the UTs in India, it is by no means an insurmountable one. However, success depends on a number of key factors. It requires first and foremost, a restoration of higher and more stable rates of economic growth. But this will not be sufficient. It also requires that supporting policies and programmes be put in place to deliberately stimulate employment in all sectors of the economy which hold the greatest promise for employment and income generation on one hand, and on the other, the implementation of strategies which can, among other things, improve the access of all groups to education and training and income generating activities in a sustainable manner.

The task of employment generation requires concerted action by several ministries and departments of government both at the national as well as the state levels. But it is not a task for governments alone. Employers’ and workers’ organizations, as well as other members of civil society must play an increasingly active role in the process. The support of the international community is also critical, not only in terms of resource flows, but in changing the rules of international economic systems in favour of poor producers and consumers.

These suggestions are being discussed with the hope that it will stimulate some dialogue and serve as a basis for possible action on this very important topic by bringing out different publications and periodicals both in the print as well as the electronic media with a view to making everybody aware regarding the availability of jobs besides the facilities for studies, training and research in different institutions, schools, colleges and universities.

Strategies for Employment Generation

1. To collect data and information related to the existing publications including newspapers, journals and periodicals providing information and news regarding employment opportunities besides facilities regarding academic and professional training and research in different vocational fields.

2. To bring out daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, bimonthly, quarterly, six-monthly and yearly newspapers, journals, periodicals and other publications related to employment and training with a view to generating employment specially among the weekers sections of the society.

3. To publish books, encyclopaedias, directories and dictionaries on different topics with a view to generating employment.

4. To connect the association with the labour market mechanisms and patterns to give into the pattern and intensity of poverty and into the factors concentrating it among particular groups.

5. To give prominance to labour market policies, as well as those related to employment, labour institutions, social protection and human resource development and poverty eradication strategies.

6. To distinguish between poverty due to exclusion from access to jobs and poverty associated with the nature of employment and the levels of income which it generates while attempting to analyze the labour market situation in the Indian Subcontinent and its impact on poverty.

7. To assess the degree to which labour market exclusion is directly linked to poverty and the extent to which state or community safety nets or family support systems exist or whether it affects particular members of households (younger persons, for example) where there is another income source.

8. To place the creation of employment at the centre of national strategies and policies, with the full participation of employers and trade unions and other parts of civil society.

9. To help and assist in the formulation of policies to expand work opportunities and increase productivity in both rural and urban sectors.

10. To provide education and training that enable workers and entrepreneurs to adapt to changing technologies and economic conditions.

11. To help generate quality jobs, with full respect for the basic rights of workers.

12. To give special priority, in the design of policies, to the problems of structural, long-term employment and underemployment of youth, women, persons with disabilities and all other disadvantaged groups and individuals.

13. To empower the women for gender balance in decision-making processes at all levels and gender analysis in policy development to ensure equal employment opportunities and wage rates for women and to enhance harmonious and mutually beneficial partnerships between women and men in sharing family and employment responsibilities.

14. To also empower members of vulnerable and disadvantaged groups through the provisions of proper and appropriate education and training.

15. To look for a broader recognition and understanding of work and employment and greater flexibility in working time arrangements for both men and women.

16. To assist in alleviating poverty and unemployment: either by focusing on the members of economically weaker sections of the society and other groups directly affected by the economic reform and adjustment policies such as retrenched workers, or more generally by addressing chronic and structural poverty and unemployment.

17. To strengthen the social acceptability and the political viability of adjustment and reform programmes.

18. To help in creating a new approach and culture of social service delivery based on a flexible institutional mechanism circumventing the bureaucratic structure and encouraging participatory and decentralized development with the participation of local groups and associations.

19. To develop strategies to assist the formation and strengthening of collective action in the informal sector by developing relations with trade associations.

20. To raise awareness on the importance of good working conditions and social security by extending workers’ education programmes to the informal sector.

21. To assist in improving working conditions of their subcontractors in the informal sector with a view to enabling them to create more employment opportunities for trained and skilled persons.

22. To assist informal sector operators to take part in trade fairs.

23. To assist informal sector operators to organize themselves effectively.

24. To integrate issues on occupational safety and health and social security in programmes to raise productivity.

25. To assist informal sector self-help associations to integrate awareness raising on occupational safety and health into their activities.

26. To establish innovative market services for the development of adult workers, by expanding the role of employers and organized employees in the planning and delivery of services, including training, retraining, job search, placement, skills identification and counselling.

27. To increase the capacity of the private sector to perform its role in the training and development of the young men and women to acquire techno-managerial as well as entrepreneurial skills.

28. To improve the existing employment market information system.

29. To help adult workers to acquire new skills at the technical and supervisory levels in order to make them eligible for higher level jobs at higher wages in occupations essential to economic growth or in their own businesses.

30. To reduce the transition time to new jobs for displaced workers.

31. To accelerate the entry of female workers into skilled technician, master craftsperson or supervisory positions.

32. To establish a permanent private sector mechanism to fund a variety of workforce development activities and create a forum for workers and employers to collaborate in implementing human resource development strategies and programmes.

33. To provide skill and interests assessment and career and employment counselling to determine the training, placement or business development support, the employable persons need to acquire the job, promotion or suitable income generating activity.

34. To provide a comprehensive package of services to include brokering and referral of workers to jobs, on-the-job training, business development support services and specialized training at the craftsperson, artisan, supervisory or managerial level and appropriate entrepreneurial training to place workers in new jobs, better jobs or self-employment opportunity.

35. To promote the concept of establishing learning laboratories which would provide computer assisted training e.g. literacy, numeracy and workplace basics such as problem solving, oral communication and planning and organizing work.

36. To establish Employment and Training Market Services Centres to introduce innovative approaches in human resource development.

37. To establish the principle of equality between men and women as a basis for employment policy and promoting gender-sensitivity training to eliminate prejudice against the employment of women.

38. To eliminate gender discrimination, including by taking positive action, where appropriate, in hiring, wages, access to credit, benefits, promotion, training, career development, job assignment, working conditions, job security and social security benefits.

39. To encourage various actors to join forces in designing and carrying out comprehensive and coordinated programmes that stimulate the resourcefulness of youth, preparing them for durable employment or self-employment, providing them with guidance, vocational and managerial training, social skills, work experience and education in social values.

40. To cause research on the underlying factors which are most important in differing national contexts in determining the levels of youth unemployment.

41. To evaluate all types of policies and programmes tried in different five-year plans with a view to designing a foolproof and long-term strategy for employment generation.

42. To locate the factors which influence the success or failure of specific policies and programmes relating to employment and training.

43. To prepare a Policy and Programme Manual for policy makers to aim primarily at national capacity building for the design, implementation and evaluation of policies and programmes for countering youth unemployment.

44. To help analyse the national background characteristics, financial constraints, current educational efforts and effects and present conditions of societal development in different States and UTs of India.

45. To help the Central Government establish appropriate targets for employment generation and derive suitable strategies for implementing policies and programmes to meet the needs of the educated unemployed.

46. To establish a Life and Career Advising Centre - a single point of contact for student counselling on academic, personal and career issues.

47. To create a learning environment all over the country that encourages students to become actively involved in their own education.

48. To help reduce unemployment in the country by assisting the Central and the State Governments and public institutions in the initiation of professional and job oriented courses and by introducing the urban as well as rural entrepreneurship programmes for self employment.

49. To encourage an employment policy that is free of prejudice and party politics which promotes new ideas relating to sustainability.

50. To strengthen the voluntary as well as non governmental organisations in order to make them available for the organisation and implementation of programmes having a positive, social, economic and educational content with a view to having more number of job givers than job seekers.

51. To serve as a centre of ideas and experience and dissemination of employment and training information on national as well as global job markets and its availabilities, reach, awareness, policy, law, research promotion, and preparedness in particular.

52. To help the Central and the State Governments in organising formal and non formal training programmes in attitudinal and behavioural change for bringing productivity and efficiency with the help of the trained employers and employees.

53. To publicize through the media an international network instances of successful policies, programmes and demonstrations regarding employment promotion and bring these success stories to the attention of policy makers.

54. To establish a national network of like minded NGOs with the ability to publicise the activities related to employment generation.

55. To strengthen international scientific research organisations so that they can play a larger part in shaping and coordinating the research agenda on vocationalisation of careers.

56. To work closely with policy research centres focusing on global scale resource and development issues to bridge the gap between basic research and policy on employbility.

57. To evaluate the existing curricula of the undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate level courses and propose necessary changes for making these programmes fit for helping the alumnis to find self employment opportunities by acquiring entrepreneurial leadership techniques.

58. To address the universal shortage of trained personnel in new and emerging job oriented areas through a sharp increase in funds to be sanctioned to universities and institutions.

59. To advise the younger generation for acquiring appropriate knowledge and technologies from the aged persons and senior citizens and to popularise their proven ideas and experiences.

60. To use restructured educational and training programmes to reorient vocational education for creating jobs in the new and emerging fields.

61. To help initiate training cum production cum rehabilitation centres in the rural as well as urban areas for the benefit of the younger generation.

62. To create employment generation environment by updating the existing vocational training programmes in the polytechnics, institutions, colleges and universities.

63. To strengthen with adequate study materials the existing distance learning programmes for enabling the working persons to strengthen their qualification and encouraging earning while learning.

64. To prepare instructional texts including audio and video lessons on employment and training to be distributed through the existing institutions as well as through the new outfits in the country.

65. To use and popularise the existing and new satellite channels for teaching and training through the air for the benefit of the citizenry.

66. To aid in organising conferences, seminars, meetings, discussions, debates, study courses, collection of statistics, exhibitions, shows, tour trips and to establish different endowments and scholarships for the promotion and furtherance of the employment generation strategy.

67. To organise employment museums for displaying the available vacancies besides different types of advertisements in the print and the electronic media.

68. To conduct sponsored as well as non sponsored research programmes with the support of Central and State Governments and publish such reports and case books.

69. To arouse in teachers and other educators a full awareness of our responsibilities in moulding future generations for a peaceful employment and work culture.

70. To promote that kind of education that will help each individual from earliest years to develop full human potential for constructive, peaceful living in the expanding communities in which one grows; family, neighbourhood, school, local community, country, in fact, the whole human world.

71. To seek to enable individuals through constant educational and career improvement to deal with and resolve misunderstanding, personal as well as social, in the spirit of wisdom, charity and duty.

72. To support design, production and wide spread distribution of educational materials for the furtherance of social progress, international understanding, and worldly stability.

73. To make the full use of mass media for the cause of education especially in the proper communication of controversial views and issues, local and global, so as to maximize cooperation and conciliation.

74. To make everybody aware regarding the need for national as well as international integration and cooperation.

75. To invite representatives of different countries including the universities, NGOs and regulatory bodies for discussing issues like labour, employment, entrepreneurship and education.

76. To seek support of the educational and scientific organisations for using their facilities and infrastructure for conducting different programmes related to clean as well as green jobs.

77. To help design courses on subjects and topics generally not covered by existing institutions but are of great importance viewing the changes in the societal systems.

78. To continue to be open in ideas, methods, systems, places with no cloisters.

79. To help people through appropriate training to lead a way of life that can be sustained by our Mother Earth.

80. To justify the creation of organisations by uniting all the professionals of the country in order to influence the power structure through their function as counselling centres, and by placing them, whenever possible, in areas of conflict for equalizing the flow of knowledge, for reducing aggression and for generating attitudes of fraternization.

81. To suggest to the national and international leaders alternative approaches to the solution of problems relating to health, education, pollution, unemployment and peacelessness.

82. To encourage the establishment of institutions for learning that serves the spirit of employment generation and also by stimulating existing colleges and universities to implement courses of study related to virtual education for employment opportunities in the cyber related fields.

83. To cooperate with authorities at various levels in implementing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and reminding the employers and the employees regarding their human rights as well as human duties.

84. To collaborate in the work of existing and functional organizations that have stated goals and purposes similar.

85. To propose to other developmental associations, programmes on peace problems that are flexible in nature and capable of being adopted and modified according to cultural background, environment, and changing needs of people.

86. To update educational means for the reciprocal dissemination of culture and the elimination of illiteracy.

87. To disseminate information in the form of advertisements and/or articles regarding selection and recruitment in public as well as private sector organisations in the publications to be brought out from time to time.

88. To conduct periodical analaysis of employment and unemployment data at both State level and all India level and projections of labour force, workforce, and unemployment in the country.

89. To suggest strategies and programmes for creating gainful employment opportunities and to look into sectoral issues and policies having a bearing on employment generation.

90. To identify gaps and to suggest necessary approach / strategies and the need based policies and programmes in the fields of occupational safety and health, skill development, social security, employment planning and policy.

91. To help provide opportunities for individuals seeking a green or ecologically responsible career available in many diverse catagories on the international, national, state and local levels; in private, public, and non-profit sectors; within different fields; and in different job functions.

92. To introduce responsible business practices fostering a competitive edge through efficiency in production, minimum generation of waste, and a more productive and healthy work force.

93. To advise the Government of India and the State Governments to constitute People's Commission on Employment Generation with a view to having immediate solution regarding unemployment as well as unemploybility.

94. To collaborate, affiliate and federate with the Central and the State Governments, agencies and bodies for implementing the projects of employment generations.

95. To raise and borrow money for the purpose of the promoting employment generation in such a manner as may be decided from time to time and to prescribe the membership fees, charges, grants-in-aid etc.

96. To purchase, take on lease or exchange, hire or otherwise acquire properties, movable or immovable and rights and privileges all over the world, which may be deemed necessary and to sell, lease, mortgage, dispose or otherwise deal with all or any part of the property.

97. To open branches, chapters and constitutent centres in different parts of the country and get them registered with appropriate authorities if needed and felt conducive for the attainment of
the aims and objects with a view to creating employment.

98. To invest the money not immediately required in such securities and in such manner as may be decided from time to time, the money especially collected through subscriptions, advertisements, sponsorship, fees, gifts, endowments, donations, grants etc.

99. To finally provide information, knowledge, wisdom, and education that prepares every body for leadership and social responsibility enabling to think and communicate effectively and to develop a global awareness and sensitivity for a better global understanding, world peace and unity.

100. And to generally do all that is incidental and conducive to the attainment of the objects relating to employment.

NEED FOR greening OF employment and green careers options for the new millennium

Responsible Business practice fosters a competitive edge through efficiency in production, minimum generation of waste, and a more productive and healthy work force. Companies that were once vastly more preoccupied with "end of the pipe" solutions to environmental compliance regulations have changed their focus. Environmental considerations are now having a powerful effect on a broad array of professional fields in new and creative ways. Opportunities for individuals seeking a "green" or environmentally responsible career are available in many diverse categories on the international, national, state, and local levels; in private, public, and non-profit sectors; within different fields and industries; and in different organizations and job functions.

The greening of job sectors
There are many career opportunities available to people who want to help make the earth a cleaner and greener place in which to live. In careers as different from one another as agriculture and banking, individuals are applying their passion and their skills to contribute to a sustainable earth. The following is a sample of the industries that are currently being affected by environmental legislation, consumer demands, and environmental management practices. Most of the jobs and industries intersect, and many of them are rapidly changing, but all of them are experiencing an increased demand for workers who are environmentally literate.

Agriculture and food processing: As more people educate themselves about how environmental health affects their own health and well being, the desire for petrochemical-free, pesticide-free food and fabrics grows. The result has been an increase in the demand for organically grown fruits, vegetables, and grains. The same is true for natural fibres, such as cotton, and niche products, such as baby food and chocolates made from organic cocoa. Job possibilities in the agricultural and processing industries range from nontoxic pest management to the retail sale of organic food and clothing; from entrepreneurial ventures to non-profit opportunities in research, education, and advocacy.

Banking and finance: Many banks are now making environmental issues an integral part of their internal operations, investment criteria, and financial services. In addition, the banking and finance industries, like corporations in many other fields, are creating corporate environmental policies that promote internal energy efficiency and reduce waste. They are also carefully factoring environmental assessments into loan and investment standards. Furthermore, international banks are beginning to conduct debt-for-nature swaps with countries that harbour threatened land areas like rain forests, for example and are offering their investors investment funds and portfolios screened for environmental performance. Job opportunities are available for people with credit and finance backgrounds in banks, at nonprofit corporations researching environment and finance, and in international development organizations such as the World Bank.

Chemical industry: Because profits within the chemical industry depend on remaining in compliance with environmental regulations, this one area where top management officials consistently place a high priority on environmental sensitivity. Monsanto, DuPont, Dow, Kodak, and others spend millions of dollars yearly to meet environmental regulations. Nearly all top and middle managers in the chemical industry have an environmental component in their job descriptions. Environmental engineers, compliance administrators, and product and marketing managers who are environmentally literate are in demand by chemical firms.

Communications: As the communications industry continues to expand with huge growth sectors such as telecommunications, cable networks, and on-line computer networks such as eco-net and bio-net, there is a corresponding demand for individuals who can translate environmental information for the general public. Opportunities for public relations managers, researchers, writers, and journalists who gather, analyze, and disseminate environmental knowledge are available in both publication business and in corporations. People with computer skills, a CD-ROM design background, or electronic publishing experience can put their talents to use translating technical data and environmental information.

Consulting: Consultants help shape companies in a multitude of ways ranging from energy use to packaging design to manufacturing processes to employee training and development. For example, as companies begin to distribute more environmental information to their stakeholders and to the public, green audits and full-cost accounting systems need to be developed to quantify and track environmental management and performance in company operations. Consulting offers opportunities for people interested in environmental management, especially for those individuals who possess a technical background and management skills.

Consumer products: In response to the growing consumer demand for products developed with the environment in mind, companies continue to look for ways to make their product lines more environmentally friendly. Therefore, product managers need to stay on top of new environmental regulations that might affect the packaged goods industry, such as trends in recycling and package design for products ranging from laundry detergent to toothpaste. Once again, environmentally literate candidates are actively sought.

Design and the arts: Architects, industrial designers, graphic designers, and fashion designers have a wide selection of structures, forms, processes, and materials available for use in their products. Until recently, many products were deliberately designed for obsolescence, ensuring an ongoing consumer demand for replacements. Today, however, designers are emphasizing the creation of more energy efficient products that require fewer natural resources in their manufacture or construction. Additionally, many fine artists, architects, and conceptual artists work with city agencies to offer creative and thoughtful solutions to urban environmental problems.

Education: Education is, in part, how we came to realize there was an environmental crisis in the first place. The more we learn, the more we realize how little we understand of the basic interconnectedness of all living things, and the more we realize we have yet to learn. By the year 2010, almost all countries of the world will adopt legislation requiring that environmental concepts be included in the curricula for kindergarten to twelfth grade. At the college level, both environmental science and environmental studies are to be taught. Less formal educational opportunities are also growing, worldwide. Opportunities for environmentally literate teachers, teacher trainers, curriculum developers, and librarians continue to grow.

Energy: Environmentally responsible career opportunities in the energy sector range from energy conservation programmes instituted by public utilities. Energy industry managers are changing their concept of energy use to include conservation practices. Job possibilities for communications specialists, planners, and technical experts continue to grow as our energy needs are reconsidered for office buildings and commercial real estate, mass transit, and households. Opportunities for the construction trades and for architectural design firms to upgrade their energy conservation service to their clients will also continue to flourish in the coming years.

Entrepreneurs and small business: Environmentally sensitive small firms and start-ups should thrive, as they will be better equipped to fill niches and adapt to rapidly changing markets. Individuals are eagerly establishing their own consulting firms, creating products, and offering services that solve environmental problems and meet consumer demands for "green" products. Creativity, access to capital, and good management skills are all critical to the growth of this sector of the economy. From technology to furniture design, from retail to health services, job possibilities for environmental entrepreneurship continue to grow.

Environmental services: Enterprises involved in environmental cleanup offer job opportunities for individuals with diverse skills, ranging from finance and water monitoring to testing, accounting, and marketing. Such jobs include working with the maintenance services of municipalities and privately owned recycling programmes, as well as in the development of prevention technologies for industry. From participating in the cleanup of sites for pollution control, asbestos abatement, and solid waste disposal, the possibilities within both existing companies and start-ups are abundant.

Health: Health concerns ranging from lead poisoning to reactions of off-gassing from petrochemicals in office carpeting have forced health officials to examine more closely the relationship between health and the environment. A plethora of environmental problems like air pollution in cities, water quality issues; tainted fish from polluted seas; and chemical hormones forcefed to livestock, have created the dire need for health professionals to conduct research, disseminate information, and help create appropriate public policy.

International opportunities: When the borders many countries opened after globalisation the acute environmental degradation in these geographic areas was dramatically revealed. Clearly, job opportunities exist here for people who can provide technical cleanup and waste prevention expertise. This same situation holds true for many developing countries. International environmental issues demand assistance from most professional fields like consulting, engineering, management, environmental services, education, and health. Those with the appropriate combination of language skills and environmental knowledge will find opportunities to work in most existing and new markets.

Law: Some environmental issues are regulated nationally on central, state, and local levels, while others are dealt with internationally. Environmental law is integral to every functional area of the work force, from accounting, marketing, finance, and management, to public policy and grassroots organizing. Therefore, every individual with benefit from a basic understanding of it. Opportunities range from lobbying on behalf of nonprofit organizations to helping to develop government policy to working in environmental divisions of national and international corporations.

Nonprofits: Nonprofit organizations can be as varied as public interest groups, foundations, think tanks, labour unions, and trade associations. Each of these groups needs analysts and communicators to study, question, track progress, and plan strategy on national and international environmental issues. Thousands of nonprofit groups have come into being since 1970. They are always in need of well-rounded professionals, including those who offer scientific and legal skills and those who can market, manage, and control the growth and maintenance of these organizations. Environmentally literate individuals with talents in advertising, public relations, administration, and fund-raising often choose to put them to use in these sectors.

Public sector. The public sector, governmental agencies and departments, employ key environmental individuals in jobs as diverse as consultants, attorneys, accountants, public relations managers, information specialists, scientists, and computer specialists. The Central and State Pollution Control Boards and local departments of environmental protection, conservation, and sanitation all make available information on public sector careers opportunities for individuals wishing to combine their employment opportunities with a commitment to environmental responsibility.

Challenges for the future
Individuals seeking green employment should remember that there are four catalysts in finding answers to the current environmental challenges facing society. These catalysts are empowerment, education, employment, and creativity. From empowerment we gain courage to speak up, to be self-determined, and to act. Through education we learn the skills necessary to create an effective work force and to make informed choices about how our lives and actions affect our environment. We also learn how the environment affects our lives. Employment provides a vehicle to share our talents and to enjoy meaning, self-worth, and dignity. Creativity enables us to turn a problem or question on its head, to transcend the habitual and the conventional, to create visions, and to growth toward those visions. The more we dare to do so, the greater our chances of making a positive impact upon our environment.

Individuals must take responsibility to educate themselves about the environment by reading, talking to others, taking classes, asking questions, being curious, and following their instincts. As our environmental problems grow and intensify their effects upon human health and ecosystem stability, we need all people to be environmentally literate. As we continue to explore global environmental problems, we may begin to use the catalysts of empowerment, education, employment, and creativity to ensure that environmental integrity becomes a human right.

The word 'environment' became part of every day language in the 1960s. Even today, its meaning is far from clear. The term has evolved and continues to evolve. In part this evolution is due to an increase in scientific knowledge. Even more it is a result of changes in the mood of the general public. During the 1960s, for example, the word 'environment' evoked mainly concerns about pollution and the depletion of natural resources, over population, and crowding — the thousand demons of ecological crisis. In contrast there is greater emphasis today on the positive qualities of environments — on those things that contribute to the quality of life.

Let us expect that the Government of India, the State Governments, the international and national funding agencies and the NGOs will spread the message of the greener as well as cleaner mind for green education, green employment and green careers with a view to bringing mental peace in the third millennium.

© copyright www.prtrivedi.com 2010
Prof. Dr. Priya Ranjan Trivedi